Wednesday, November 27, 2019
More and more people are making online shopping presents. Why? If this tendency continues. what do you believe will be the effects? Shoping fuels economic systems worldwide. In our complex life style. shopping has been a major activity and that is the ground. our streets are lined up with shopping finishs Ã¢â¬â stores. superstores. promenades and so on. But since few old ages. methods of shopping have been altering. thanks to the cyberspace. When the construct of e-shopping was introduced. no 1 anticipated that it would steep the full universe. The chief ground behind popularity of on-line shopping is easy entree to internet. Due to advent in the field of scientific discipline and engineering one does non necessitate to utilize computing machines to surf the cyberspace. Even appliances such as cell phones. laptops. i-pads et cetera have inbuilt characteristics that allow cyberspace surfboarding. Again. the figure of cyberspace users has been billowing continuously. We will write a custom essay sample on Online Shopping Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Normally. most of these users are members of societal networking sites. which are really popular for advertisement merchandises. Not merely this. online sites dedicated for e-shopping are besides being launched so that consumers get a glance of internationally popular trade names and besides those that compete to last in local markets. Furthermore. convenience is besides the ground purchasers prefer on-line shopping. Gone are the yearss when shopping required to be a planned activity that needed much clip. E-shopping can be done inadvisably and there are assorted payment options and attractive price reduction offers that lure possible buyers. Not merely techno savvy persons but besides common work forces are smart plenty to compare monetary value lists on countless shopping web sites before puting orders. Furthermore. earlier. people used to be disbelieving about the quality of merchandises sold online. But cut-throat competition has improved services to such an extent that purchasers get prompt bringing and confidence of refund or replacing in instance they are non satisfied with merchandises they buy on-line. Effectss of e-shopping are non merely positive but besides negative. Equally far as positive 1s are concerned. along with convenience. clip saved from shopping can be utilized instead. In this fast paced life clip saved is clip earned. In add-on. consumers get exposure to legion merchandises and services. and Sellerss can make all the possible purchasers in the cyber infinite. On the down sides. e-shopping encourages unprompted purchasing and many merchandises are ordered unnecessarily. Furthermore. online payments have proved hazardous as people give their confidential information for fiscal minutess. Fraud is besides really common as after doing payment. substandard merchandises may be delivered. As there is no direct contact of purchasers and Sellerss. such incidents are really common. Overall. every development brings jobs and online shopping is no exclusion. Buyers should be witting plenty to verify genuineness of Sellerss. It is certain that the face of market is traveling to change wholly due to e-shopping.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Burn Case Study Essays Burn Case Study Essay Burn Case Study Essay Mr. Davis is a 56-year-old man who was involved in a fire in his home. He was smoking a cigarette and fell asleep, dropping the cigarette and igniting the bed linens. He sustained full thickness burns over the upper half of his trunk and neck (anterior and posterior) and the posterior aspects of both upper arms. He also sustained superficial partial-thickness burns to his face and hands. He arrived at your burn unit 5 hours after injury. Labs were drawn. A foley catheter and NG tube were inserted in the ER. Assessment findings: Height is 72 inches, weight is 185 lbs. You auscultate wheezes in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s lungs and he has a productive cough of a small amount of carbon-tinged sputum. Mr. Davis rates his pain at a Ã¢â¬Å"9Ã¢â¬ on a scale of 0-10. He denies pain at the chest, neck, back, and upper arms. Urine output has totaled 150 ml since the foley was inserted 2 hours ago. His foley is draining burgundy-colored urine. Mr. Davis is experiencing nausea, has faint bowel sounds, and his abdomen is distended. A nasogastric tube was inserted to low intermittent suction and is draining dark yellow-green liquid. His extremities are edematous making the pulses difficult to palpate. His blood pressure is 96/50, pulse 114 beats per minute, respirations are 24, and temperature is 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The greatest initial threat to a patient with a major burn is hypovolemic shock. Using the above assessment: 1. Do you think Mr. Davis is experiencing hypovolemic shock? If so, what data supports this? (2 points) Yes, Mr. Davis is most likely experiencing hypovolemic shock, due to low blood pressure, increased heart rate, as well as an increase in respiratory rate.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Compare & Contrast - Essay Example The former believes in one God, reflecting the monotheistic nature of Christianity while the latter pictures the polytheistic nature of the Mesopotamian religion. The Epic of Gilgamesh is a portrayal of the belief in many gods who have been actively participating in the life of one of the human characters who later was made a god, Utanapishtim. It mentions a similar experience of the main character, Gilgamesh where the gods did their part in making the tasks given, more difficult for him and making him unsuccessful in his attempt to attain the same success of Utanapishtim in becoming a god. MalthusÃ¢â¬â¢ essay on the other hand spoke about one God who also actively participates in what human beings do however, in contrast to UtanapishtimÃ¢â¬â¢s unhelping manner to Gilgamesh in his endeavors, the God the essayist speaks of is a helping God. Coming from human existence, the god Utanapishtim seemed to have humane characteristics remaining in him because he acted deceitfully towards Gilgamesh by giving task he was sure would not be attained by the man. The God of Malthus on the other hand extends help to men in their trials. The essay stands in defense to the essayistÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that there is a God who is after the good of men and not their destruction even though he is able to control the circumstances in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The hardships God allows in the lives of people, he says, are meant to process him to becoming a better person and not for him to be consumed by his murmurings and complaints as he faces lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s trials. Conversely, Utanapishtim seemed to be a selfish god who looked forward to how he could use man for his benefit, as he sent Gilgamesh to the bottom of the sea to take hold of the boxthorn-like plant which could make him regain his youth, meaning to steal the plant from him in the future. This places a dividing lie between the gods presented in the literary pieces being examined in this paper. In the epic, Gilgamesh
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Discuss the causes and effects of cancer. To what extent is cancer prevention the individual's responsibility Provide researc - Essay Example Statistics indicate that in 2007, cancer led to the death of about 7.6 million people in the world Main Body Paragraphs 1 Topic What are the causes of cancer? Topic sentence The main causes of cancer are genetic factors, tobacco, exposure to radiations, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diets Development points When DNA in a gene is damaged or undergoes mutation, the gene may also get damaged thereby affecting cell division negatively. Cancer may also affect an individual due to a genetic predisposition that is inherited from members of the family. Tobacco smoking is commonly associated with pancreas, stomach, kidney, and lung cancer. Exposure to radiations (ionizing and non-ionizing) can cause cancer in different pats of the body. Studies have shown that between 30 and 35 percent of cancer deaths are related to obesity, diet, and sedentary lifestyle or physical inactivity Concluding Sentence There are several causes of cancer. There are also factors that increase the risk of having cancer. Main Body Paragraphs 2 Topic Effects of Cancer Topic sentence There are several negative effects of cancer Death Pain Side effects of treatment Loss of livelihoods Development points: Cancer is a leading cause of deaths across the world. ... mouth cancer, lung cancer, and liver cancer can be prevented by avoiding the smoking of tobacco and consumption of alcohol Skin cancer on the other hand can be prevented by avoiding exposure to the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s rays Avoid contact with radiations and carcinogens Eat diet rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fresh fruits and low in salt and fat Get vaccination Exercise the body regularly Concluding Sentence Prevention of cancer is closely related to its causes. Individuals have a responsibility to play in preventing cancer attacks in their body Conclusion Topic sentence In conclusion Summary points: Cancer is a group of deadly diseases that kill many There are more than 100 different types of cancers The main causes of cancer include radiations, unhealthy diet, genetic predisposition, and physical inactivity. Cancer can be prevented by engaging in physical exercises, eating healthy diets, avoiding radiations, tobacco, alcohol and other caseinogens. Individuals play a big role in preve nting cancer infections Causes and Effects of Cancer Introduction Cancer is a wide group of ailments characterized by uncontrolled cell growth. Cancer causes harm to the body when cells that are damaged divide without regulation to form tumors (with the exception of leukemia). A tumor can develop to the point of interfering with the circulatory, nervous or digestive systems according to Medical News Today (2013). They can also harm the body by releasing hormones that change body functions. When a tumor stays in one location and grows to a limited extent, it is often considered to be benign. Malignant tumors which are more dangerous form either when cancerous cells invade and destroy healthy tissues as they move though the body via the nymph systems or blood, or when they divide and develop to a
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Case Analysis, Turnaround of JC Penny - Assignment Example With the rapidly changing customer lifestyle and preference, the retailer can look into modifying its offerings like including more low-priced items in its merchandise. JCPenney can also take advantage of globalization by opening new stores in rapidly developing economies. 1. Pursue relationship marketing. Relationship marketing is now becoming essential in recognition of the lifetime value that repeat transactions from a single customer can bring. Relationship marketing will help JCPenney by cultivating customer loyalty, lowering transaction costs, and more targeted marketing. However, this new strategy will be bringing in more costs; will necessitate the introduction of a new corporate culture; and training of human resource. 3. Improve pricing. Since customers are searching for trendy yet high value products, JCPenney should improve its pricing. Improved pricing will attract more customers, heighten demand, and gain their loyalty. However, price cuts might harm the company by reducing margins and erode company's image. This case analysis recommends that the best strategy that JCPenney can pursue is relationship marketing. The company can implement this through its database of customers.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Play And Creativity In The Curriculum Some have argued that play is childrens work but I would say that it is far more than this. Play is their self-actualisation, a holistic exploration of who and what they are and know and of who and what they might become. (Broadhead 2004, p. 89) Since nineteen century, learning has been constructed and reconstructed within the frameworks of three main theoretical perspectives, whether understood as adult-led process, child-led individual process of discovering knowledge, or socially constructed experience. This essay will discuss in depth the contribution of play and creativity to young childrens well-being and improving childrens lives; what is play and creativity and why they are important; the three theories or instructions versus exploration are fundamentally diverse in their understanding about the development of childrens cognition and application in learning environment, yet their persistence in contemporary school system is evident. An evaluation of the intervention of different theories will be based on the important work of Skinner, Piaget, Vigotsky etc. and different curriculum developed and used all over the world as TeWhaariki, Reggio Emilia and Early Years Foundation Stage. This essay underlines the importance of play and creativity of young children in their early years, considering historical point of view, theoretical and examples from own experience, practice and observations. Within western societies, the optimal conditions for early learning are frequently viewed as environments where play, both unstructured and structured, adult-led and child-led, solitary and social, provides the majority of the learning opportunities (Wood 2010). In the last century theories of play replaced or developed earlier learning theories and previous ways of thinking. Ideas taken of psychologists like Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner have lead to create educational framework and curriculum, as the High/Scope curriculum developed from the US Head Start project in the 1960s (Schweinhart and Weikart 2003), and the Te Whaariki curriculum developed by the New Zealand government in the 1990s (Ministry of Education 1996) . the last decade the Foundation Stage was introduced in England and Wales (QCA 2000) where play has been described as the key way in which children learn. Recently, the findings of the EPPE project (Sylva et al 2004) made practitioners thinking how to get the right balance into the curriculu. The main object is how to implement potentially instructive play activities which need to be supported by effective adult interactions into the learning process. In the meanwhile the debate on the value and nature of play for young childre n and for their development continues. The benefits of play for children and young peoples physical, intellectual, social and emotional wellbeing are no longer questioned. The Early Years Foundation Stage stands up behind this philosophy which we can see from the Appendix 1. Play is innate. Childhood play is an instinct that is pleasant and important when we look at the learning and development of young children (see Appendix 2). Play is different and flexible. Often we cannot use terms as right or wrong way when consider play. There are enormous ranges of different types of play. They can be active or subdued; they could involve imagination or exploration. Furthermore play could involve others or carried out alone. The essence of play is best described perhaps with the 12 Principles of play (Bruce, 2011). Those principles underline any present playwork practice which we could describe as good practice. Play is a process that is freely chosen, personally motivated and directed. Children and young people rule and control the meaning and fulfill of their own play, by listening their own instincts, ideas and interests. This is done in childrens own way for their own purposes and reasons. All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Play is a biological, psychological and social necessity, and is fundamental to the healthy development and wellbeing of individuals and communities. (Gleave, 2012) Recent research shows that to be able to respond and function effectively in our complex society requires interactions with others. Those interactions need to be managed actively (Sawyer et al., 1997). In addition one of the beliefs which is used in therapeutic play is that imaginative play affect the aggression levels and promote emotional intelligence as state by Holland (2003). Furthermore, the more play is cooperative, the more children might connect with/or understand other childrens knowledge. This understanding is underpinned with their respond and emotional engagement with the surrounding environment. Interactions like those will increase childrens understanding of other childrens perspectives. They can become experts for one another, scaffolding their own and their peers learning experiences. When children interact with peers they are more creative, the dialogue they build with each other or the play is like a practise to reality and helps them develop social skills. Their learning and creativity is stronger than when an adult tells then what to do, or leads them to a game, there is not as much personal/inner involvement when its adult led. Recently observations try to focus more on play between children, not on their interactions with adults. This is to recognise that into communication with peers which are equally engaged, exist the potential to improve childrens learning development. It will arise along their actions and interaction. As an example see Appendix 2. Often play goes hand by hand with creativity. As a concept creativity has been vastly researched for more than fifty years, and they still remain disagreements what creativity is and how it develops (Lynch Harris, 2001). Part of researches underline that creativity involves process of flexible thinking and being original, also problem solving and being capable to redefine and elaborate (Meador, 1997). The other part of researchers point to personal characteristic which could help some individuals to become more creative, for example tolerance for uncertainty, willingness to overcome obstacles, openness to growth, possession of personal motivation, acceptance of sensible risk-taking, wanting to be recognized, and willingness to strive for such recognition (see Sternberg, as cited in Lynch Harris, 2001). Moreover, others support the thinking that people cannot be generally creative in all areas but more often into specific fields, as art, machinery or woodwork (see Gardner, as cited in Lynch Harris, 2001). The cultivation of creativity is a base on which programs and strategies are produced for positive outcomes and underpin the well being of young children. Such programs which include creative problem-solving skills help children to become successful adults. Adults who will question the accuracy of information and put this information into constructive use (see Todd Shinzato, as cited in Brockman,2012). Moreover, Sautter (1994) suggests that children being involved in creative activities improve their motivation. Practitioners in the mental health field discovered that creative activities can be used to protect children from stress (see Honig, as cited in Brockman). Creative thinking allows both young people and adults to avoid boredom, resolve personal conflict, cope with increasing consumer choice, accept complexity and ambiguity, make independent judgments, use leisure time constructively, and adjust to the rapid development of new knowledge (Strom, 2000, p. 59).Furthermore, in our century we are witnesses of rapid scientific and technological development, so people need to be inventive and flexible. Therefore, in order to keep up with nowadays accelerating developments, it is important for adolescents to be creative thinkers (see Fryer, as cited in Brockman). In addition to the above, the study Trough a different lens by Meynard (2010) shows that moving away from a subject-centered approached, particularly when they are prescribed outcomes in the Framework, towards child-led learning and play, may be extremely challenging for the practitioners. The project is based on Reggio Emilia pedagogy. While in England and Wales early years education policy appears to have shifted direction in relation to curriculum, pedagogy and underpinning theories of learning, by contrast the infant and toddler centres of the municipality of Reggio Emilia are rooted in a coherent, well-defined theory of knowledge which resonates with sociocultural principles. In the Reggio Emilia approach it is important the collaboration between all participants. They believe that young children symbolically represent their ideas through, for example, drawing, painting, dance, singing, speaking, mime and play. Instead of curriculum lead activities, organic projects are used as a vehicle for learning. However, having used to lead childrens play, the practitioners found it hard to not interrupt and their believes challenged. One of the teachers states: Children who I initially thought of as low ability, fidgety boys I now feel have fantastic problem solving skills Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ this approach has made me question what I thought was a bright child and has turned on its head how I rate the children in my class. From the above study is evident the influence of different approaches have on the adults role in relation to childrens play. For example learning for behaviourism is adult-led, emphasising on the external environmental influences on learning and outcome focused; the most effective teaching technique in class room in the sixties and seventies was the programmed instruction, an operant conditioning method developed by Skinner in a behaviourist fashion which went in four steps. Giving a task to perform in their play, observing the child, if incorrect repeat again in an easier manner, if correct reward. This processes lacks imagination of the activity, leads children to understand learning as a stressful experience and create anxiety which in turn interferes with school performance and social and psychological development.(Gavrielle L.2008). Although Skinner acknowledged children need to explore knowledge for themselves and that creativity is born within social interaction, it was not until the constructivist theory of Jean Piaget (1896-1980) when society and school acknowledge the need for children to explore knowledge for themselves. In contrast to behaviourist believes, Jean Piaget argued learning happens inside the child, should be child-led, with little if no emphasis on teaching. According to Piaget instructions were the inhibition for exploration. In a computational study, Bonawitz and colleges compared the outcomes of play with a same toy given by an experimenter in two conditions. In the first condition children were instruct how to use it, and in the second they were just given the toy to play with. The results of this study show significant differences between the times children of both conditions played with it. Also, the toy had more features then the one shown by the experimenter and the children in the sec ond condition seems to show higher exploration in contrast to the first. (Bonawitz E., et al, 2010). In a contrast, Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) was the one to outline the importance of some adult guidance in childrens development; introducing Zone of Proximal development (ZPD) as the difference between what the child can not do by himself and what he can achieve with help from more able adult/peer; an adult-led theory in which the teaching and assisted performances were the key for successful development. In conclusion, the importance of how play is used to encourage creativity was outlined; the implication of the above theories is evident in the present educational curriculum. The frameworks influenced by Piaget discovery learning theory have been revolutionary for educational practices. The above examples show the importance to find the right balance between adult and child-led play and creativity which are fundamental for childrens learning and development.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Illegal drug use is a major problem in the world today. Million of dollars are spent ever year to prevent the trafficking and distribution of these drugs. Virtually all Drugs is smuggled into the United States concealed in false compartments, fuel tanks, seats, tires of private and commercial vehicles, pickup trucks, vans, mobile homes, and horse trailers. Large shipments usually are smuggled in tractor-trailer trucks in false compartments and among legitimate bulk shipments, such as agricultural products. The government has devised ways to cut down on drugs. Yet the drug crisis is greater today then ever. Marijuana is one the most widely used illegal drug. Over the past thirty year the government has demonized Marijuana. In this paper my intent is it to illustrate the pros and cons of Marijuana use, as well as to prove that marijuana should be legalized, regulated, and taxed just like cigarettes. Marijuana, also spelled Marihuana comes from the Indian hemp plant, cannabis sativa. It is a crude tobacco like substance produced by drying the leaves and flowery top of the cannabis plant. It is put into pipes or formed into cigarettes (reefers or joints) for smoking. Recently, it has appeared in cigars called blunts. Lester Ginspoon writes, "The drug is a mild hallucinogen meaning that it distorts sensory perceptions. Marijuana is known by a variety of names including pot, tea, grass and weed (112)". Marijuana can also be added to foods and beverages. The intoxication part of the plant lies mostly in its strong-smelling, sticky, golden resin. Gabriel Nashas wrote, "The hemp flowers, especially those of the female plant, give this smell off." (Ginspoons 214). Many users describe two phases of marijuana effect as initial stimulation, giddiness, and euphoria, followed by sedation and pleasant tranquility. Mood changes can often accompany altered perceptions of time and space of one's bodily dimension. "The hemp plant can be found growing as a weed or as a cultivated plant throughout the world, in many soils and climates, with the more potent varieties produced in dry, hot, wasteland"(lord 35). Marijuana varies in potency, depending on where and how it is grown and prepared for use or stored. In the book uses of Marijuana it Solomon Snyder states: Active ingredient, tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), is present in all part of both male and ... ...control their own bodies. Decriminalize drugs, help those who need it, and let the police spend their time protecting us from real crime. We as a society need to have a more open mind on this herbal stubstance Bibliography Grinspoon Lester. Marihuana Reconsidered. Cambrige: Harvard University Press, 1971. Lail, Bernard M. Marijuana, Friend or foe. Nashvile: South Publishing Association,1979. Linkletter, Art. My Child an Drugs?. Ohio: Standard Publishing, 1981. Lord, Jess R. Marijuana and personality Change. Lexington: Health Lexington Press, 1972 Nashas, Gabriel G. Keeping off the Grass. New York: Rader's Digest Press, 1971 Rudolph, Barbara."Ganja." Time 7 July 1986: 46-47 Snyder, Solomon H. Uses of Marjuana . New York: Oxford University press,1971 Turner, Carlton. Marijuana. New York :Academic Press 1973. NA "Marijuana prohibition in the 90's". Jan. 1997 State.gov/www./global/narcotics_law/index.html NA, "A new attitude on old drug" May. 2000 :www.weedsmart.org/min.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The debate on television violence has been on going for many years now and has produced a wide and varied set of views and research results. Many well established psychologists have attempted, through various types of experiments and observations, to either support or negate a link between violence on television and the violent episodes in Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ life. These sets of data have thrown up some interesting views and personal conclusions regarding the subject of television violence, and we will show the varying views and conclusions that some of these psychologists have reached; and by using a respected and well known system we will try to show the views of a small section of our community. Previous research into the link between violence and television Over the years numerous psychologists have produced thousands of experiments and or research to support or negate the link between violence and television. In 1987 a psychologist named Cumberbatch produced data on the actual amounts of violence found to be in British television programmes. He concluded that 30% of the programmes contained some form of violence, with an overall frequency of 1.14 violent acts per programme and 1.68 violent acts per hour. Each act of violence lasted an average 25 seconds leading to violence occupying just over 1% of total television airtime. His research showed that in 26% of violent acts death occurred, but in 61% no injuries were shown and the victim was portrayed as being in pain or stunned. In 83% of cases, no blood was shown as a result of a violent act, and considerable blood and gore occurred in only 0.2% of cases. Cumberbatch also revealed that most perpetrators of violent acts were more likely to be portrayed as Ã¢â¬Å"baddiesÃ¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬Å"goodiesÃ¢â¬ , and violence occurred twice as frequently in law breaking than in law-upholding contexts. His research, although neither for or against violence on television, gives us an idea of the amount of violence on television we are exposed to. Howitt and Cumberbatch in 1974 analysed 300 studies of television violence and itÃ¢â¬â¢s direct effect on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, they played down the link between television violence and the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. A further study into the relationships between the media and violence carried out by Eron 1987and Phillips 1986 found a different conclusion. They concluded that a positive correlation between the amount of aggression viewed at 8 and later aggression at 30 could be seen. George Gerbner (1989) researched television and its influences on human behaviour and said: Ã¢â¬ Television influences human behaviour because there are Ã¢â¬Å"routesÃ¢â¬ or mechanisms whereby the content of television can have an effect on what we do, and how we act. Thus, part of televisions influence comes about because of how we learn (by observation and imitation), because of how we respond to certain kinds of story material (arousal/desensitisation), and because of the structure of our inhibitions and the way television provides the kind of stimulation necessary to release them (disinhibition). I called these behavioural mechanisms, because for the most part the influence was shown on some activityÃ¢â¬ (p128 The Psychology of Television) Aletha Huston (university of Kansas 1989) studied the effects of television violence on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and stated: Ã¢â¬ Children who watch violent television programmes, even Ã¢â¬Ëjust funnyÃ¢â¬â¢ cartoons, were more likely to hit out at their playmates, argue, disobey class rules, leave tasks unfinished, and were less willing to wait for things than those who watched the non violent programmes.Ã¢â¬ (p 142 The Psychology of Television) We can see from the varying studies, different results and opinions of these psychologists just how hard it can be to support or negate a link between violence on television and in real life. How the questionnaires were prepared in class In a classroom environment we produced a questionnaire on peoples opinions relating to the link between television violence and real life. The class split into small groups of three or four and discussed possible questions to add to the questionnaire, trying to have a balance of pro television and anti television questions. The individual group questions were discussed and eight questions picked to make up the actual questionnaire, these questions consisted of four pro television and four anti television, the questions were set out so an anti television was followed by a pro television question. The obvious reason for the split into pro and anti television is to try and produce a questionnaire that will give the people taking part a non-biased set of alternate answers. The questions we decided on where as follows: 1. Violence on TV causes certain people to copy those actions in real life 2. People understand TV is not real life and have no wish to copy what they see 3. Children often act out violence from TV especially cartoons 4. Violence in playgrounds is not influenced by TV 5. Violence is sensationalised in TV soaps to boost ratings 6. Violence in soap story lines is vital to keep viewers interested 7. News programmes use to much graphic violence 8. Graphic violence is needed in the media to show reality in news stories To measure these results we required a scale, this scale is known as the Likert questionnaire scale and was devised in the 1930s, and it works on the principle of asking the question and then giving the subject five possible answers, strongly agree, moderately agree, unsure, moderately disagree and strongly disagree (the first two and last two can be reversed) Questions one, two, five and six were prepared using the answer scale, 1: strongly agree, 2: moderately agree, 3 unsure, 4: moderately disagree and 5: strongly disagree. Questions three, four, seven and eight were prepared using the answer scale, 1: strongly disagree, 2: moderately disagree, 3: unsure, 4: moderately agree and 5: strongly agree. The reason for this is to prevent untrue answers and is explained in the next section. Why are there anomalies in preparation and analysis When preparing the questionnaire we realised that we could possibly encounter problems in the way people would answer the stated questions, the Likert scale is specifically designed to prevent this. For example we could encounter people who would pick only their favourite number and pay no attention to the questions being asked, or people would stick to the left side or right side of each column. The way the scale is set out at the moment both someone who is anti and someone who is pro television would both score the same, 24, and somebody who is unsure of every question asked would score 24 as well. Also a person who sticks to only one side of the scale, say the right side, would score a maximum of 40. This would not form a very interesting conclusion and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s true views would be unknown so we have to alter the scale to produce interesting results, we alter only the scale and not the actual answers. To alleviate these problems the scale has to go through slight changes when we have all the necessary data, but we must emphasise that only the scores are changed and not any of the actual answers given by the participants After we have made these changes it can be seen that we now have a set of interesting results with definite pro and anti opinions and the people who have not completed the questionnaire correctly have no bearing on the result. How the data was analysed To analyse all the data collected from the questionnaires we needed to produce a graph of all the answers. This table would show in detail how the subjects of the questionnaire answered our eight questions and, when we alter the scale, would provide us with evidence of the pro and anti television feeling. The graph shows all the answers to the questionnaire and also shows the changes made, the numbers in red show how we have altered the value for the actual answer e.g. question 1 answer 1 has now become question 1 answer 5 etc Summary results of questionnaire To find the pro and anti television views of our subjects we needed to work out the over all percentages, these were found by the mathematical processes below: 1. Strongly pro television: value 1 (79) divided by the number of participants (520) multiplied by 100 to give us 15.19% 2. Moderately pro television: value 2, 113/520 x 100 = 21.73% 3. Unsure: value 3, 45/520 x 100 = 8.65% 4. Moderately anti television: value 4, 181/520 x 100 = 34.81% 5. Strongly anti television: value 5, 102/520 x 100 = 19.62% These results show that 54.43% of the people who participated in our questionnaire are moderately or strongly anti television, compared to 36.92% who are moderately or strongly pro television. Other theories for the cause of aggressive behaviour Although the debates still continue on the links between television and aggressive behaviour, other links have been researched and their findings well documented. Probably the most well known person to document his findings on aggressive behaviour was Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); he had a psychoanalytical approach and stated that we all have innate instincts in the form of something called Eros (the seeking of pleasure and self-preservation) and Thanatos (a tendency to self destruct) He tells us that this tension can often lead to the Thanatos being projected outwardly and onto others. Freud stated that the need for displaying aggression comes as naturally as the need for food, drink and sex. The aggressive instinct can be displaced through cathartic activities such as sport. Megargee (1966) supported Freud in his findings and found that crimes are often committed by over controlled individuals who, over a period of time, have repressed their anger. Another approach to this topic was LorenzÃ¢â¬â¢s ethological approach, his hydraulic model claimed that Ã¢â¬Ëaggressive energy builds up gradually over a period of time and needs to be released periodically.Ã¢â¬â¢ Lorenz (1966) stated that aggression is connected with our need to be adaptive, to fit in and survive within our environment. Dollard et al (1939) adopted a very different approach, the frustration-aggression hypothesis. This hypothesis claimed that aggression is always a consequence of frustration and the existence of frustration always leads to aggression. Dollard et al view aggression as innate and in doing so agree with the findings of Freud and Lorenz, but, say it would only take place in particular opportune circumstances. Aggression could possibly be delayed or it could be aimed at a third party, a scapegoat. It is as if the mind thinks things through and only acts when the time is perceived to be right, or is advantageous. Another view is that of Berkowitz (1966) who says we rely on certain cues to trigger our responses. Frustration leads to anger, which is different from actual aggression, the frustration cues a readiness to act. Then only an environmental cue will actually trigger aggression. This theory is somewhat similar to the frustration-aggression hypothesis but it has the intermediary response that takes the form of anger, something has to come along that tips us over the edge. Bandura (1961, 1963, 1965, 1973, 1994) produced a theory on social learning. He claimed that aggressive behaviour was learned through observation, imitation and reinforcement of aggressive models. Even non-tangible reinforcements such as the words Ã¢â¬ be toughÃ¢â¬ can have the same effect. Bibliography Course notes R Walters & P J Daly 2003 The psychology of Television John Condry
Friday, November 8, 2019
death penality essays Ignorance has many forms, and all of them are dangerous. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries our chief effort has been to free ourselves from tradition and superstition in large questions, and from the error in small ones upon which they rest, by redefining the fields of knowledge and evolving in each the distinctive method appropriate for its cultivation. (Peters, 1985) What is torture? From the Roman jurists of the second and third centuries to the historians and lawyers of the present, those who have taken the most trouble to consider the question have come up with remarkably similar answers. In the thirteenth century, the Roman lawyer Azo gave this definition: Torture is the inquiry after truth by means of torment. In the twentieth century legal historian John Heath wrote: By torture I mean the infliction of Physically founded suffering or the threat immedialty to inflict it, where such infliction or threat is intended to elicit, or such infliction is incidental to means adopted to elicit, matter of intelligence or forensic proof and the motive is one of military, civil, or ecclesiastical interest. (Peters, 1985) The reason I had to say a little about torture is that it is a form of punishment that for many centuries was carried out in the name of the law. I cannot believe that for many centuries it was acceptable to torture someone to try to get the truth about a crime. Torturing someone does not get the truth to come, out it simply gets the person to tell you what you want to hear just to get the torture to stop. Reading through several books I had to ask myself isn't the death penalty a form of torture? Ernest Van Den Haag writes: I have heard moral philosophers express the view that although capital punishment could not be approved, its abolition is an impossible political goal. To struggle in behalf of the vicious and wicked requires more tolerance than most people can muster. There are other...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
An Introduction to the Chicago Manual of Style If you dont work in a field like professional academia, publishing, or research, style guides can read a little obsessive. Groups like the Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA) and University of Chicago publish thousands of rules on formatting, grammar, usage, and source acknowledgement for academic writing and publishing, and they get nitty-gritty. In a Chicago-style citation note, for instance, If a symbol rather than a number is used Ã¢â¬ ¦ the symbol appears as a superscript in the text but not in the note, where it is not followed by a period but may be followed by a space, as long as this is done consistently (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., 14.24).But in certain fields, minutiae help. CollegeScholarships.org reports that in academic writing, how you present your information Ã¢â¬ ¦ is often seen as [being as] important as the ideas you are putting forth. The genre has rigid attribution requirements and relies heavily on precision, clarity and consistency. A uniform style minimizes technical distractions, keeping the focus on the content.Broadly speaking, its not that uniform, because different academic genres use different style manuals. Generally, in the United States, APA reigns in the social sciences, MLA in undergraduate English and the arts, and CMS in literature and history.The Chicago Manual of Style began in 1891 as a one-page style sheet for typesetters at the University of Chicago Press. It has since grown to 1,000 pages. Here, some of the more commonly encountered and misunderstood rules in the book. (Note that our source for this review is the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.)CommasSerial commasEffective use of the comma involves good judgment, with the goal being ease of reading, according to the Chicago Manual of Style. To that end, Chicago style says Heck, yes! to the oft-debated serial (a.k.a. Oxford) comma, arguing it prevents confusion.DO use serial commas. The serial comma precedes the las t item in a list of three or more. The exception to the serial-comma rule is when the final and is replaced by an ampersand ().Her dad spreads butter, jelly, bananas, and honey on the bread.The day she overslept, spilled her coffee, and lost her keys, she was late for work.If I dont see any oranges, tangerines, or lemons, Ill go to the other store.Bed, Bath BeyondDO put a comma after a year or state. If you can remove it from the sentence without changing the meaning, it gets a second comma. Correct: On May 31, 2011, she graduated from a Santa Fe, New Mexico, college.DO put a comma after etc. or et al. (Dont italicize them, either.) Correct: Ill bring the forks, napkins, plates, etc., if you bring the food.DO NOT put a comma between two predicates. Correct: She ran to the store and picked up a carton of milk.ApostrophesApostrophes get confusing in their possessive roles when paired with a noun ending in s. In CMS style:The possessive form of singular noun gets an s, even if it ends in s. Correct: The passs elevationThe possessive form of a plural noun ending in s gets only an apostrophe. Correct: After the dogs naps, they played in the yard.Plural numbers and letters: Years and capital letters take only an s, while lowercase letters take an s Correct: By the early 1970s, bellbottoms were popular. Correct: She learned the ABCs at school. Correct: They were told to mind their ps and qs.QuotesIf youre putting the period to the right of the closing quotation marks, youre doing it wrong.Punctuating quotesCommas and periods go before the closing quotation marks. Correct: It was he, she said, pointing at the defendant. Correct: The opening line reads, Call me Ishmael.Colons and semicolons go after the closing quotation marks. Correct: He was upset when she said, I think we should stay home; he thought they should go out as planned.Question and exclamation marks go outside closing quotation marks unless theyre in the quote. Correct: Didnt you hear her say Lets go? Co rrect: She yelled, Oh no!Idioms and expressionsDO NOT put quotes around familiar expressions. Correct: It was time to learn about the birds and the bees. Correct: The robbery was just the tip of the iceberg.TitlesTitles of peopleCivil, military and professional titles are treated differently depending on their position relative to the persons name. Among Chicago styles rules:DO capitalize a title when it immediately precedes a personal name. Correct: I watched as Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts took the floor.Ã¢â¬ ¦UNLESS its acting as a descriptive phrase: Correct: I watched as Massachusetts senator Ted Kennedy took the floor.DO NOT capitalize a title when it follows a name. Correct: I watched as Ted Kennedy, senator from Massachusetts, took the floor.Titles of worksTitles of published works vary by type and length.Use italics for books and periodicals. Correct: She read The New York Times.Use quotation marks for book chapters, articles, other short works. Correct: In America n Home Cooking: A Popular History, Miller explores why Americans still cook.Capitalize titles in headline style. Headline styles instructions, which the Chicago Manual acknowledges are occasionally arbitrary, include:DO NOT capitalize articles (a, an, the)DO NOT capitalize common coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or)DO capitalize the first and last word, regardless of part of speech. Correct: Long Walk to Freedom, by Nelson Mandela Correct: In Newsweeks How to Sleep: Ability to Dream May Be in the Genes, Aristos Georgiou argues for a genetic link.NumbersTreatment of numbers in text varies between style guides. CMS prefers:Spell out numbers one through one hundred. Correct: She ordered one hundred balloons and 101 party hats.Spell out numbers ending with hundred, thousand, etc. Correct: There were seven thousand seats for 6,999 students.DO NOT superscript ordinal numbers. Correct: Anne celebrated her 500th day at work. Incorrect: Anne celebrated her 500th day at work.For mattingInstructors and publications often have their own sets of formatting guidelines, so be sure to check those. If theyre following CMS:DO NOT put a period at the end of a caption consisting of one incomplete sentence. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Unless most other captions in the manuscript are complete sentences, in which case you can punctuate the incomplete sentence for consistency.DO put a period at the end of an incomplete sentence if its followed by at least one complete sentence (which also gets a period).DO NOT use a double space after periods.DO NOT justify text. All text should be aligned flush left (ragged right).Citation system: Notes and bibliographyThe citation section is perhaps the most important part of a style guide. In academic research, authors are expected to follow citation rules to a tee. CMS has two different systems: name-date and notes-bibliography. Its best to check whether your instructor or publication has a preference.In the notes and bibliography system, you cite sourc es in footnotes or endnotes, which are denoted by superscripted numbers in the text, and also list them in a separate bibliography section. Entries in the bibliography are alphabetized, regardless of the order in which they first appear in the text. The following examples show proper formatting for typical book, journal and website entries. (Note: punctuation and spacing count.)BookNote1. Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom (New York: Back Bay Books, 1995), 21.Subsequent note for same book13. Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom, 98-100.Bibliography (alphabetical)Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom. New York: Back Bay Books, 1995.Journal articleNote (specific page number)3. Tim Miller, American Home Cooking: A Popular History, Journal of American History 105, no. 1, (June 2018): 143.Subsequent note for same article4. Miller, American Home Cooking: A Popular History, 144.Bibliography (articles complete page range)Miller, Tim. American Home Cooking: A Popular History, Journal of American History 105, no. 1, (June 2018): 143Ã¢â¬â4.Online journal articleInclude a URL or database name for online journal articles in all entries except subsequent entries for the same source.Note3. Tim Miller, American Home Cooking: A Popular History, Journal of American History 105, no. 1 (June 2018): 143, https://doi.org/10.1093/jahist/jay032.Subsequent note for same articleMiller, American Home Cooking: A Popular History, 144.BibliographyMiller, Tim. American Home Cooking: A Popular History, Journal of American History 105, no. 1 (June 2018): 143-4, https://doi.org/10.1093/jahist/jay032.Website contentIn addition to the standard information, include the date of publication or revision; if neither of those is listed, include the date you accessed it online.Note8. Citation Quick Guide, Chicago Manual of Style Online, accessed March 26, 2018, https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.Subsequent note for same content9. Citation Quick Guide.BibliographyChicago Manual of Style Online. Citation Quick Guide. Accessed March 26, 2018. https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.Citation System: Author-DateThe author-date system has only two components. There are no superscripted numbers in the text, footnotes or endnotes. Rather, full citations are collected in an alphabetized reference list, and in-text citations include the sources author, date and page range in parentheses.BookReference listMandela, Nelson. 1995. Long Walk to Freedom. New York: Back Bay Books.In-text citationMandela 1995, 98-100.Journal articleAs in the notes-bibliography system, in-text citations contain specific page numbers, while references show the whole page range for the article.Reference listMiller, Tim. 2018. American Home Cooking: A Popular History. Journal of American History 105, no. 1 (June): 143-4.In-text citation(Miller 2018, 143.)Online journal articleIf you accessed the article online, tack on a URL or database name. Reference list Miller, Tim. 2 018. American Home Cooking: A Popular History.Journal of American History 105, no. 1 (June): 143-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/jahist/jay032. In-text citation (Miller 2018, 143.)Website contentAs in the notes-and-bibliography system, the addition here is the date of publication, revision, or access.Reference listChicago Manual of Style Online. n.d. Citation Quick Guide. Accessed March 26, 2018. https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.In-text citationCitation rules, as with most other rules in style guides, get far more in-depth than this and may come with multiple exceptions; when in doubt, check the unabridged manual. Its tough to follow every rule in the Chicago Manual, but no ones rejecting manuscripts on the grounds of inconsistent caption punctuation. If you have limited time, focus on citing your sources by the book.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Costs associated with occupational and corporate crime - Essay Example Income tax violation is a popular white-collar crime. According to an article in New York Times, tax evasion costs governments around the globe more than $3.1 trillion annually. Such a whopping loss of more than $3.1 trillion in annual revenue is a very big issue, yet it is exceedingly hard to catch white-collar criminals. According to a report published by the World Bank in 2011, more than 5.1% of global GDP never reaches the government offices in the form of taxes. Europe is currently facing a crisis because of this rampant tax evasion. The highest amount of tax revenue is lost by the US, about $337 billion. The US is followed by South America and Italy (Werdigier). Embezzlement is a kind of occupational crime and research claims that Ã¢â¬Å"the annual cost of embezzlement is 12.42 billion dollarsÃ¢â¬ (Zarka). Yet, research suggests that the highest costs are associated with white-collar crimes. For example, it is claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"the American business community lost $50 bill ion in 1980 to white-collar crimeÃ¢â¬ (Eitzen cited in Long), which is more than 10 times the costs associated with all street crimes. These are just cost estimates because truth is that occupational and corporate crimes cannot be accurately measured. White-collar criminals are hard to catch because of their high position which is why jails are crowded with socially and economically disadvantaged offenders who have committed some kind of low-class street crime. Many problems are encountered by researchers who try to uncover costs associated with occupational and corporate crimes. It is always easier to estimate costs associated with street crimes because people behind these crimes have no occupational or corporate background. These are jobless people typically belonging to poor class. But, the problem with occupational and corporate criminals is that the higher professions and
Friday, November 1, 2019
It Was Five Past Midnight at Bhopal - Essay Example For those who wish to see how a disaster can evolve from seeds of carelessness, poverty and callousness, Five Past Midnight is a fascinating glimpse into a particular and dreadful case with immensely tragic consequences for an entire region. LaPierre and Moro (2002) note how the plant was a Ã¢â¬Å"hydra-headedÃ¢â¬ monster: It had a unit for alpha napthol, a unit for phosgene, a unit for methyl isocyanate, etc. Ã¢â¬Å"[C]ontrol rooms, works and hangersÃ¢â¬ over 120 acres with infrastructure. LaPierre and Moro make clear that the plants seemed superficially safe, but the whole concept was exploitative: People like Ã¢â¬Å"the ArgentinianÃ¢â¬ resisted the size and the way it would keep on snaring out, taking over areas and controlling the population. But it came out of poverty. The people who had the best jobs were those climbing up high on the date trees, seeking out the nectar of the fruits, risking life and limb. The Bhopal factory, as horrible as it was and how terrible its catastrophe would be, was the best that could happen to the region, a boon. LaPierre and Moro make it immensely clear that Bhopal was not really an isolated incident: It emerged out of poverty, desperation and pain. LaPierre and Moro further connect Bhopal to other problems in the region. TED's Case Study of Bhopal does the same. Ã¢â¬Å" However, industrial accidents such as Bhopal are not just an Indian or even a Third World problem but are industrial disasters waiting to happen , whether they are in the form of "mini-Bhopals", smaller industrial accidents that occur with disturbing frequency in chemical plants in both developed and developing countries, and "slow-motion Bhopals", unseen chronic poisoning from industrial pollution that causes irreversible pain, suffering, and death... These are the key issues we face in a world where toxins are used and developed without fully knowing the harm that can come from their use or abuseÃ¢â¬ (1997). Bhopal was in fact connected to one of the most wide-eyed dreams in world history: The Green Revolution (LaPierre and Moro, 2002; TED, 1997). Ã¢â¬Å"The Bhopal facility was part of India's Green Revolution aimed to increase the productivity of crops. Considered an essential factor in the effort to achieve self-sufficiency in agricultural production, pesticide production use increased dramatically during the late 1960's and early 1970's. The decision to manufacture the pesticides in India, as opposed to relying on imports was based on India's goal of preserving foreign exchange and its policy of industrializationÃ¢â¬ (TED, 1997). This further connects Bhopal to a long history, which in the spirit of LaPierre and Moro we shall analyze. Khilnani (1999) reviews the history of a united India. India was not a historically unified entity: Through Marathas, Muslim invasions, Ashokas, Rajputs and other dynasties and groups, it was a massive area that was never unified in one region until the British. The artificiality of th is unified India was exposed most tragically, both to Nehru and Gandhi, in the Pakistan secession and the Hindu-Muslim conflicts of the post-independence period. Much like Germany, Prussia, Hungary and Austria, or Italy, the idea of the nation of India came about consciously by a program of unity. After the British were driven out, an Ã¢â¬Å"IndiannessÃ¢â¬ was almost manufactured by both Gandhi and Nehru. This Ã¢â¬Å"IndiannessÃ¢â¬ in the view of Nehru in particular, but certainly Gandhi as well, was to be a leader of the world, non-aligned between the extremes of Communism on the one end and capitalism on the other. They led the Third World movement and tried to navigate a compromise between Leninism and free markets. The Green Revolution was part of this: An attempt to catch India up again, bringing it