Monday, September 30, 2019
SYRIAN CONFLICTS Security Council Fellow Delegates Ladies and Gentlemen.Good morning everybody,my name is Melwin.Today i take this oppurtinity to speak about Syrian conflcts.The Syrian conflicts has admitted it has a chemical weopans stockpile and says its willing to destroy it under international supervision. The UK is working with the US and the France to draft a UN resolutionon on the Russian for SyrianÃ¢â¬â¢s chemical weopans to be put under international control.The 3 nation want a timetable and consequences of failure spelt out. Prime Minister David Cameroon says that he still supports military action. Speaking at the G-20 summit,MR.Cameroon announced that the uk would give an additional of $80m in aid for Syria-much of it for medical training and equipment to help civilians targeted by chemical attacks. SYRIAN CONFLICTS Security Council Fellow Delegates Ladies and Gentlemen.Good morning everybody,my name is Melwin.Today i take this oppurtinity to speak about Syrian conflcts. The Syrian conflicts has admitted it has a chemical weopans stockpile and says its willing to destroy it under international supervision. The UK is working with the US and the France to draft a UN resolutionon on the Russian for SyrianÃ¢â¬â¢s chemical weopans to be put under international control. The 3 nation want a timetable and consequences of failure spelt out. Prime Minister David Cameroon says that he still supports military action. Speaking at the G-20 summit,MR.Cameroon announced that the uk would give an additional of $80m in aid for Syria-much of it for medical training and equipment to help civilians targeted by chemical attacks. Prime Minister David Cameroon says that he still supports military action. Speaking at the G-20 summit,MR.Cameroon announced that the uk would give an additional of $80m in aid for Syria-much of it for medical training and equipment to help civilians targeted by chemical attacks Ã¢â¬Å"PRAISE THE LORDÃ¢â¬ STMC SUNDAY CATECHISM Lesson-8 Church: The Prophetic People. 1. Who is a prophet? What are his functions? A prophet is the one who communicates GodÃ¢â¬â¢s message to the people. He speaks for God. He also bears witness to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Word in his own life. God sent prophets to Israel from time to time to form the people of Israel as his ownÃ people, to make them know His will and to lead them according to his will. 2. What do you understand when we speak of the prophetic function of the members of the Church? The members of the Church who receive the Holy Spirit through Baptism and Anointing become a prophetic people. The prophetic people are those who are anointed by the Holy Spirit and led by the Holy Spirit. To become witnesses of Jesus Christ is the mission of those who receive the Spirit and become prophets in the Church. 3. A prophet is called to be the light of the world and salt to the earth: illustrate. Salt preserves edible thing; it also gives taste. In fulfilling their prophetic function the members of the Church should work for the elimination of evil in the society and to add taste to life which they experience deep within them. Wherever they are, the members of the Church are called to bear witness to Christ through proclaiming the Word of God and by the example of their lives. As a prophetic people, Christians are called shed the light of Christ on those who live in the darkness of immorality, deceitfulness and fraud. 4. Write a short note on: A Christian is one who has to bear witness to truth. Our prophetic function in the world is to bear witness to truth like Jesus. The Church should really become the conscience of the world by fighting against untruth and injustice and by witnessing to truth, justice and love. This is the prophetic function of the Church. 5. How do the lay people fulfill their prophetic mission? The lay persons are called to fulfill their prophetic function in the Church by strengthening themselves through the reception of the sacraments, by leading a life of faith and by proclaiming the gospel through their words and lives. Lesson-9 The Missionary Church. 1. The Church is missionary by her very nature. Explain. After resurrection from the dead, Jesus appeared to his disciples and said: Ã¢â¬Å"As the father has sent me, even so I send youÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded youÃ¢â¬ . Jesus entrusted the Church with the mission to bear witness to him. Therefore the Church, by her very nature, is missionary. 2. How doesÃ the Church perform her missionary function? The ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to proclaim Christ and make him known as the only Saviour of the world lead all peoples to this path of salvation. It is the duty of every Christian to proclaim Jesus Christ to others who do not know him yet. The Church perform this God given mission in three ways (i) The Church proclaim Christ to those people who have not heard of him.(ii)She instructs those who are already in the Church through faith and baptism, so that they may deepen their knowledge in the mystery of faith.(iii)She re-evangelizes those Christians who have become weak in their practice of faith. 3. Every Christian is a missionary. illustrate. One is called to participate in the mission of proclaiming Christ by virtue of baptism. To bear witness to Christ by leading a life in accordance with the gospel values is the fundamental mission of every Christian. This mission is carried out differently by the members of the Church depending on the state of life each one has chosen. 4. Write notes on: The missionary endeavors of the Syro-Malabar Church. The Christians, who received faith from St .Thomas, imbibed his missionary zeal and faith. Many missionaries, both men and women, from the Syro-Malabar Church are engaged in octane missionary work in different parts of India. In recognition of the missionary spirit and zeal of the Syro-Malabar Church and its members, Pope John 23rd entrusted the care of Chanda Mission to the Syro-malabar Church. Later a number of dioceses in the north,such as Satna, Sagar, Ujjain, Bignor, Rajkot, Jagadalpur, Gorakpur were entrusted to the Syro-malabar Church by the Holy See. Diocese of Kalayan was established in 1988to look after the spiritual needs of the members of the Syro- Malabar Church who have settled in Mumbai for job, and trade and commerce. The diocese of Thakkala in the south was established in i996 and in the North, the diocese of Balthangadi in 1999 comprising the mission territories of Kerala. The diocese of Chanda was divided and the diocese of Adilabad was formed. The diocese of Chicago in USA is a part of the Syro-Malabar Church. 5. How can we participate in the mission of the Church as its members? We bear witness to Jesus Christ by the words and actions, particularly when we live in the midst of people who are non-Christians. Lesson-10 The Pilgrim Church 1. What is the hope that gives meaning to Christian life? Christians are a people who move forward with eager longing for heaven and the bliss of Paradise. It is this hope of eternal life, which gives meaning to Christian Life. 2.How does the Christian life become a foretaste of life in heaven? Christian Life means our union with Jesus Christ. It is state in which we are in Christ and He is in us. A complete and final realization of this union with Christ is heaven. In real Christian life, we can have a fore taste heaven, provided we live according to the promptings of the Spirit. Peace and happiness are the fruits of the Spirit which the presence of the Holy Spirit ensures in our lives. Enjoying peace and happiness here on earth through the presence of the Holy Spirit, is an experience of heavenly life-only in small measures here, but there in full. 3. How can we help our departed faithful? The faithful who are on earth can assist the souls in purgatory, through their prayers, particularly the Eucharist, almsgiving and sacrifices. 4. Explain, individual judgment and final judgment.Ã The separation of the soul from the body is death. The body gets decayed in the soul but the soul, at very movement of death, appears before God, to be judged individually, according to each oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and conduct. We call this the individual judgment. The final judgment is the one in which the just and the unjust are going to be separated finally and eternally. Lesson-11 The Church is One 1. The Catholic Church is the fellowship of the individual Churches. Explain. The Church is the body of Christ. In the Church, the members live out their Christian life in individual Churches under one common authority of the Pope. The Catholic Church is the fellowship or communion of these individual Churches. There exists a wonderful unity among these Churches. 2. What are the factors that that constitute the basis of the ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s fellowship and unity? i) Unity in Faith: Our faith is in Triune God, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit as revealed Jesus. It is the faith in the salvation,Ã made real by the son of God, who was sent by the Father, for the redemption of the world and completed by the Holy Spirit. Thus all the believers are united in one Spirit through one Lord, one faith and one baptism. ii) Unity in sacraments: Having been made into one body with Jesus through baptism, we are nourished by the Holy Eucharist and other sacraments. Church is the fellowship of those who participate in the one and the same life by participating in the same spiritual drink and the same spiritual food. Thus the members of the Church are united through one baptism and one bread for all. iii) Unity in Apostleship: Fellowship with the apostles and the Bishops is essential for maintaining the fellowship of the believers in the Church. This is called unity in apostleship. The believers who are united like this have one faith, one sacrament and one apostolic leadership. 3. Which are the main liturgical traditions in the Catholic Church? They are six liturgical traditions in the Catholic Church follow are ancient. Of these, Byzantine, Antiochian, Alexandrian, Chaldean, Armenian are of Oriental liturgical traditions and Roman (latin) tradition is Western. 4. To which liturgical tradition does the Syro-Malabar Church belong? The Syro-Malabar Church follows the Oriental Syrian Liturgical tradition. 5. On what basis are the individual Churches formed? Individual Churches has sprung up in its own particular historical context and is rooted in a particular culture. Each of them has its own life-style (CCEO 28:1). They, have all equal status in the Catholic Church. Lesson -12 The Church is Holy 1. How did God reveal his holiness to the prophet Isaiah; explain. Once prophet Isaiah was praying in the temple and he had a vision. He saw the Lord seated on a throne. The hem of his robe filled the entire temple. Above him stood the seraphim; each had six wings; with two he covered his face and with two he covered his feet and with two he flew. And one called to another and said: Ã¢â¬Å"Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of His glory.Ã¢â¬ And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him who called, and the house was filled with smoke. This vision of Isaiah is one that reveals GodÃ¢â¬â¢s holiness. 2. Why do you say that the Church is holy? The Church is a community called by the most high God, who is Holy, and dedicated to service. The holy one, God, is dwelling in the Church. The Church is being led by the Holy Spirit. The Church is also enriched by the presence of so many holy people in it. All these factors account for the holiness of the Church. 3. What are the means of sanctification in the Church? i) Sanctification through Jesus: -In the New Testament, Jesus, the Lamp of God, purifies us through his blood. It was his sacrifice on the cross that liberated us from the power of the evil one, sanctified us from sin and made us GodÃ¢â¬â¢s children. ii) Sanctification through the word of God:- The Word of God has the power to sanctify us. Jesus said: Ã¢â¬ You are already made clean by the Word which I have spoken to you.Ã¢â¬ The members of the Church can walk on the path of holiness by reflecting on the Word of God prayerfully every day and living it out during the course of the day. Iii) Sanctification through the Sacraments:- Sacraments are the means for the sanctification of the Church. They are the stream of divine life established by Jesus. God sanctifies every phase of human life through various sacraments. He specially sanctifies our bodies and souls through the holy sacrifice of the Qurbana every day iv) Sanctification through the Sacramentals:- The sacraments help us to grow in holiness. They prepare us to receive GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love and kindness and assist us in our growth in holiness. The sacramental are rituals that sanctify the members of the Church, in their verifying states of life, situations, places and things they use. v) Sanctification through Prayer, Fasting, and Abstinence:- Through prayer we can confess our weaknesses and limitations before the Almighty God and gain strength and confidence. vi) Sanctifications through Our Vocations:- Any state of life in Church is a divine vocation. Whatever is the state of life, when one moves the path of perfection of love according to his/ her state of life and inspire others to grow in holiness, the holiness illuminates. 4. How do the vocations become the means of holiness? Perfection of love is attained and holiness is achieved, by fulfilling faithfully the duties pertaining to each oneÃ¢â¬â¢s state of life. Any state of life in the Church is a divine vocation. Whatever is the state of life, whenÃ one moves the path of perfection of love according to his/ her state of life and inspire others to grow in holiness, the holiness illuminates. In a way the works entrusted to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s care can also be seen as a divine call. Through this we get an opportunity to participate in the creative, redeeming and sanctifying works of God. They become means of holiness for us when we lovingly co-operate and creatively respond to the call of God the works entrusted to us. 5. How do abstinence, prayer and fasting help us to grow in holiness? Prayer, fasting and are also means for sanctification. In prayer we meet God; we come to know his will for us. Through prayer we can confess our weaknesses and limitations before the Almighty God and gain strength and confidence. Anyone who prays sincerely is greatly strengthened against falling into sin or in case of failure, he gets back the path of holiness quickly through repentance. Though fasting and abstinence we make amends for our own as well as for others sins. Fasting gives us the strength to keep away from the situation of sin. The Church is Apostolic 1. How does the faith experience of the apostles become the foundation of the Church? The faith experience of the apostles is the basis of the Church. The apostles believed in Jesus as the Lord and God proclaimed this faith with boldness to others. And those who listened to the proclamation accepted this faith. Thus the faith Ã¢â¬â experience of the apostles became the basis of the Church, the community of believers. 2. What are the functions of the Bishops, the successors of the apostles? The Bishops in the Church are the successors of the apostles. They, through the power of the Holy Spirit given to them, are the authentic teachers of faith, the high priests and shepherds. They are the shepherds of the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s sheep entrusted to their care. The bishop is the head of the local Church, namely the diocese. In union with the Pope, a bishop teaches leads and sanctifies the people entrusted to his care in a diocese. 3. Write a short note on the apostolicity of the Syro- Malabar Church? Our fore-fathers had the privilege of receiving the faith directly from St. Thomas, the Apostle. We, the members the Syro- Malabar Church inherit this faith tradition. References like Ã¢â¬ËMar Thomma NazranikalÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËMar Thomma ChristiansÃ¢â¬â¢ are indicatives of our apostolic tradition and heritage. It was St. Thomas who confessed Jesus as Lord and God and expressed his readiness to go and die with him. The faithÃ experience that we have received through the apostle St. Thomas is the apostolic foundation of the Syro-Malabar Church. 4. When does the council of Bishops express itself in the Church? Bishops who are the successors of the apostles and the Pope who is taking the place of St.Peter, have an apostolic mission and fellowship which is exercised in the leadership of the Church. The Pope is the head of the council of Bishops. When the Bishops of the Church exercise their apostolic authority in union with the Pope, we see the collegiality of Bishops. The ecumenical councils also reflect the collegiality of Bishops. 5. What do you mean by the Primacy of the Pope? Pope is the first among the Bishops in the Church as he is the successor of Peter. The Pope is at the one and at the same time the Bishop of Rome and at the head of the Universal Church. He has the authority to lead, sanctify and teach the Universal Church. The first Vatican Council declared the Primacy of the Pope as a fundamental truth. Through the encyclicals and apostolic instructions the Pope exercises his teaching authority over the entire Church.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Every manager in an organization must develop the necessary skill of motivation, and apply it to their staff in order to work more efficiently. This ability is a key role for each department and it is of utmost importance that it be applied in a manner that is both beneficial to the organization and staff as well. Each staff member has a role to play in accomplishing goals and it is the duty of the managers to facilitate and motivate their staff. This paper will address three motivational methods to motivate staff for upcoming changes for the organization. Motivation can be defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"Forces within individuals that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort they expend at work.Ã¢â¬ (Lombardi, Schermerhorn, 2007). Individuals who possess a strong work ethic and integrity will put 110 percent into their job, those who do not will do just enough to slide by and stay under the radar. Managers must motivate and inspire staff to continue to give that 110 percent while receiving acknowledgment and respect. In other words; Ã¢â¬Å"Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because THEY WANT to do it. The challenge is to give them a reason to want to do it because doing it will satisfy a need they have. You have to tune in to their needs, motives and reasons, not yours.Ã¢â¬ (Saleem, 2007). Upon learning that upper management is going to implement changes within the organization a manager is tasked with identifying what makes their staff motivated, what makes them perform at peak levels? What does the staff need? Ã¢â¬Å"Needs are unfulfilled physiological or psychological desires of an individualÃ¢â¬ . (Lombardi, Schermerhorn, 2007). Each individual will have different needs; however it is possible to identify what the team needs by simply asking them. One may think that by developing a list of needs and instructing each member to put them in order of priority it is possible to get an accurate picture of whereÃ to start with the team and how to introduce the up-coming changes in a manner that will motivate the team to accept these in a positive and professional manner. Howev er, Ã¢â¬Å"A study, published in 1999 by Kenneth Kovach of George Mason University, compared associatesÃ¢â¬â¢ ranking of what they wanted from their jobs with what their bosses thought was important to the associates. The results of the study were somewhat surprising. At the top of the associatesÃ¢â¬â¢ list was interesting work, followed by appreciation of work, a feeling of being Ã¢â¬Å"in on thingsÃ¢â¬ , job security, and good wages. Employers thought good wages, job security, promotion/growth, good working conditions, and interesting work were most important to their staff.Ã¢â¬ (Bessel, 2012). The key here is to listen to the responses from the staff when asked what is important to them, and then we can identify their motivation. One motivation theory is the Two-Factor Theory, developed by Frederick Herzberg, (Lombardi, Schermerhorn, 2007), which identified that what really made the 4,000 respondents he questioned, enjoy their jobs were factors which related to the job itself, he labeled this satisfier factors. These are items such as feeling pride and a sense of achievement, recognition, and room for advancement. As it turned out, things relating to the setting of the job were what they enjoyed least about the job, he labeled this hygie ne factors. These are items such as work environment and conditions, interpersonal relations, policies, quality of supervision, and salary. These negative factors can be remedied with improving policies to enable staff to feel more satisfied in their environment, such as adding soothing environmental sounds, music, or providing chair message for example can help create a less chaotic work environment and positive hygiene factors. However, in using this method it is also important to be conscious that the two-factor theory is a complementary theory, improving the hygiene is also along with improving the satisfier factors as well. Common sense means that one follows with the other, recognition must also come along with environmental motivation. A second motivation theory is Acquired Needs Theory, from David McClelland, which is based on the needs of individuals. He identified three needs; first, the need for achievement as a desire to go above and beyond the norm of what is expected. Then second is the need for power, which could include control over others, or to be able to provide influence and responsibility over them. The third is the need for affiliation whichÃ is a desire to have friendly and warm friendships with others. (Lombardi, Schermerhorn, 2007). These are all needs that people acquire over time of life experiences and a savvy manager will create a work place that is responsive to these needs. The manager must allow these staff members to takes risks and challenges and encourage their ability to work with little supervision. Delegating higher responsibilities to these individuals creates security for the team and enables the manager to respond to other concerns that normally they may not be able to give the proper attention to. The third method of motivation is motivating through job design. Utilizing the two previous methods of motivation based on the needs of staff, a manager can then create jobs by assigning the required tasks to those individuals who are appropriate to accomplish job performance and job satisfaction for themselves as well as the organization. To make the future changes the organization is anticipating it is essential that the managers utilize their skills to Ã¢â¬Å"tailor job designÃ¢â¬ (Lombardi, Schermerhorn, 2007), to fit the strengths of staff with their own specific qualities and needs, this includes four specific areas, one, job simplification: identifying work processes and tasks for staff to work in clearly defined and specialized tasks. Managers can utilize lesser skilled staff to perform duties of lesser complexity, allowing others with higher skill levels to focus on areas of greater need. Job rotation allows the manager to create flexibility and understanding of other areas, creating a better relationship and moral between departments. Job enlargement integrates or combines tasks previously done by separate workers, this is an option that a manager should do with caution because it could have an opposite reaction to the motivation they are trying to create. The final alternative in job design is job enrichment which is essentially delegating some of the responsibilities of the manager to another individual creating a broader scope to their current position and allowing the manager to take on other responsibilities they may have had a hard time giving the appropriate time to. By focusing on these three types of motivational methods I intend to accomplish introducing the staff and motivating them into the future of the organization while taking into consideration their needs and skill levels to better serve them and the organization. Through personal experience, being motivated to provide superior service and customer satisfaction in the health careÃ industry, individuals who are appreciated, recognized, and offered more responsibility will work hard to meet deadlines and provide excellent patient care. This is a win-win situation for any health care organization and management team. References: Bessel, I. (2012). Understanding Motivation: An Effective Tool for Managers. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hr017 Kovach, Kenneth. (1999). Employee motivation: Addressing a crucial factor in your organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Human Resource Development. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Lombardi, D.M., & Schermerhorn, J.R. (2007). Health care management: Tools and techniques for managing in a health care environment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Saleem, H. (2007). Motivating your staff. Retrieved from http://www.dirjournal.com/guides/motivating-your-staff/
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Ai Explain in your own words what each term means. Give one example from care practice to illustrate your explanations. Diversity It means understanding that each individual is unique and recognizing our individual differences. These can be race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, physical abilities and economic status. Example: Two of my workmates are homosexual, I accept that and do not make fun of there sexual orientation and do not treat them any differently to other work mates. Equality It means treating everyone the same way regardless of there diversity. Example: Two clients accommodation is on the first floor, they both want to come down stairs because they want to participate in the afternoon entertainment. One of them has dementia and can be difficult and inter fear with other clients, you leave him or her up stairs and bring the other client down. That is not equality because of her mental diversity you are not treating him or her equal to the other person. Read more: Indirect discrimination in health and social care essay Inclusion Inclusion at its simplest is Ã¢â¬Ëthe state of being includedÃ¢â¬â¢ It is to promote that all people should be freely and openly accommodated without restrictions or limitations of any kind. Example: I make sure that every one in my care setting knows what activities are planed for the day so they can have the choice to participate if they want to. Discrimination Is the act of treating a person differently because of thatÃ personÃ¢â¬â¢s race, class, sexual orientation or gender. Example: Not taking a client shopping because of her colour I would be discriminating against her because of her race. Aii For each of the following people/groups of people, describe two different possible effects of discrimination. An Individual Anger, hurt feelings and if it continues could lead to depression or loss of life. Their Families Helplessness, anger. Wider society Rioting, turn a blind eye not want to get involved. Those who discriminate A sense of power, could lead to criminal record. Aiii Identify three ways of challenging discrimination, and describe how each will promote change. Challenge: On hearing a discriminating remark I would challenge them in a calm and professional manner and tell them that what they are saying is totally unacceptable and explain why. It will promote change by educating them and would point out that they could be disciplined for there actions. Report: On witnessing a discriminating act I would report it to my manager so it can be dealt with in the appropriate manner. It will promote change by bringing it to the managers attention and he or she can deal with it quickly and efficiently and if needed further train the perpetrator in discriminate law. Positive Behaviour: I could actively challenge discrimination by acting in a way that it empowers others to challenge discriminating behaviour. Task B Leaflet Bi Your work setting is running an induction course for new social care workers in an adult social care setting. Create a leaflet, which can be used to support this course. The leaflet must include the following: a) A description of the legislation and codes of practice relating to diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination. b) An explanation of the possible consequences for individuals, social care workers and others if the legislation and codes of practice are not followed. c) A description of how inclusive practice can promote equality and support diversity. d) An explanation of how to support others to promote diversity, equality and inclusion. Seven Gables Care Home Totland Induction Pamphlet for New Starters Legislation and codes of practice relating to Diversity, Equality, Inclusion and Discrimination. The Equality act is a legislation that is in place to ensure that people are given equal rights and opportunities regardless of there age, gender,disability, race, religion or belief and sexual orientation. The legislation is there to promote Diversity, Equality and Inclusion by making it a requirement that they are practised and incorporated into our social care setting. It is illegal to discriminate against a person/persons for any reason. A new Equality Act came into force on 1 October 2010. The Equality Act brings together over 116 separate pieces of legislation into one single Act. Combined, they make up a new Act that provides a legal framework to protect the rights of individuals and advance equality of opportunity for all. The main pieces of legislation are: the Equal Pay Act 1997 the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 the Race Relations act 1976 the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 the Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 the Equality Act 2006, Part 2 the Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2007 It is the homes code of practise to follow these legislations, by not following the legislation could have severe consequences for this home and your self. If not followed the consequences can be diverse from loosing your job to being sent to prison. Please familiar your self with the codes so it does not effect your position here and the people you work with. Try to use inclusive practise to promote equity and support diversity which means treat every one the same. Every one is treated equal here at Seven Gables from staff to clients no matter what there race, gender, sexuality, disability, religion or age. Bii Give two examples of how you could raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion. Through Training and Discussion: Training and discussions are essential to raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion in any work settings. Discussion in meetings or group discussion among staffs play a vital role to raise awareness of equality, diversity and inclusion. The more they will engage in discussion or obtain trainings about this issue the more they will learn and be aware of and also they will be able and put them in their every dayÃ¢â¬â¢s practice. Through providing leaflet, information and policies and procedures: Providing leaflets and sufficient information regarding diversity and equality can raise awareness to a social care worker by acquiring adequate knowledge about it. It also helps them to know about the consequences if agreed ways of working are not followed which restrain them from doing any form of discrimination relating this issue. Task C Reflective account Ci Write a reflective account describing: Ã¢â¬ ¢ How your personal preferences, attitudes, heritage and beliefs might impact on working practice. Ã¢â¬ ¢ How to ensure that your own practice is inclusive and respects the beliefs, culture, values and preferences of individuals. Suggested word count: 500 Ã¢â¬â 700 words Cii Write a brief account that describes examples of inclusive practice. Suggested word count: 150 Ã¢â¬â 200 words (Ciii Write a brief account that describes practice, which excludes the individual and is discriminatory. Suggested word count: 150 Ã¢â¬â 200 words Reflective account I work in a Residential Care home where we have a mixture of clients with different faiths and upbringings. Because of the age difference between me and the service users, the way I was brought up will be totally different to the way the service users would have been brought up. When I was I child I was told that there was a god and had to go to Sunday school, but as I got to my teenage years I started to doubt there was a god. When I turned 18 I joined the army, where there is a strong church of England presence and at times I took comfort in the Sunday church service. It was not until I went to Rwanda that I new there was not a god, because no god would let so much killing or atrocities happen that is what I believe. But even thoe I was probable coming in to contact with the people who committed the vile acts, I had to stay professional and not let my emotions or believes stop me in doing the job I was sent there for, giving medical aid with the United Nations. Just because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in god, doÃ¢â¬â¢s not mean my beliefs should impact on a service users beliefs. Many of the service users in my work setting like to mend there own clothes and darn there socks, if you say to them that shirt or dress has a hole in it and it needs to be thrown away, they look at you in discuss. When they were growing up times were hard and they had to make do with what they had and threw nothing away. My parents were the same, in 2015 thoe thing are a lot cheaper and easily obtained. But that does not mean that I should disregard there heritage and throw thereÃ stuff away, because I no they could easily replace it. Another example is preferences, I recently had a conversation with a female service user I care for about cleanliness, she explained to me that when she was growing up she only had a bath once a week and that was only on a Sunday. I replied that I must have a bath or shower at least three times a week. I said that she can have a bath more than once a week if she would like, but I will respect her preference to have a bath once a week and on a Sunday. On leaving her room it got me thinking on my childhood and I remembered that like her I to only had a bath on a Sunday before bed. But it just shows you how some peoples preferences change over time and some stay the same. Inclusive Practise Inclusive practise is making sure that all service users are able to participate or join any activity that is planned in there care setting for example: The care Manager has organised a trip out to Ventnor Botanical Gardens. Three residents are unable to walk, to make sure they are included three wheel chairs are sourced and a special adapted minibus with a rear hydrolic ramp to which the wheel chairs can be pushed on and loaded in to the minibus is hired. All service users are there for included and no one is left behind. When there is a film afternoon planned in the t.v room, the service users that cant walk can all so be brought down from whatever floor they are on by using a wheel chair and lift so they are included in the film. Excluded Practise Excluded practice is when service users are not treated the same, for example when we have a film afternoon in our care setting. All the service users are invited including the hearing impaired, if we did not consider the people or person who is death or partially deaf, then we would be discriminating against them if we did play the film with subtitals. Another example could be if the service manager took questionnaires around to each service user, but did not consider the blind or partially blind service users. If he left the leaflet then he would be discriminating against them because he did not provide the leaflet in Braille.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Assignment - Essay Example This will help in assessing in determining companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to meet interest and principal repayment obligations. 2. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet suggests an increase of $35,990.00 during a period 2011-12 in the value of inventory. This risk area will be examined by carrying out substantive procedures to confirm the existence of inventory and its value. 3. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall financial statements including balance sheet and income statement will be evaluated for compliance with the accounting standards set out by FASB or GAAP. This will also include the assessment of information systems responsible for preparation and reporting. Conducting interviews during an audit aims at gathering both verbal and non-verbal cues using concrete, unambiguous and descriptive language for questions and replies. The interviews are carried out of those individuals who are responsible and have the knowledge of the areas under audit review. The interviews will be conducted by the auditor to gather useful information regarding various aspects of the business and its sufficiency and appropriateness will be assessed. Non-verbal cues are important at the same time as they point out reactions of interviewee to different questions and allow auditors to ask follow on questions to probe further. Important risk areas will be examined by gathering evidence from different sources including physical examination of inventory, financial statements, internal documents and information systems. In the particular case of Torpus, auditor should raise concern regarding the event that took place at the restaurant which suggests that Mr. RonaldÃ¢â¬â ¢s credit card did not work and he could have problems regarding Statement on Auditing Standards No. 106 provides guidelines for gathering reliable audit evidence from inquiry, observation, inspection and analytical procedures. Auditors need to have a
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Slave trade and the black race - Essay Example With the markets of slaves being on high demand in the African continent, the methods of capturing the same slaves intensified to an extent whereby the children were enticed with sweets so as they can add up to the list of slaves. The children were visualized as persons who would carry out simple chores, for instance, cleaning the houses of the masters. In line to this argument, it is evident that the extent to which the blacks were demoralized to the trade is simply unspeakable. This can simply be discussed as an inhuman activity, that could have kept the escalating trend were it not for the intervention of the humanitarians and economist who argued against the entire concept of the slave trade. Regarding a human being as an object, and enslaving the same to a later supply in the market signifies the extent to which the Blacks were visualized. On another angle, other analysts and researchers in Black history argue that slave trade is one of the appalling crimes that have taken place in the history of the Blacks. The extent to which the Blacks experienced horror and undermine from the whites is astonishing. Diouf questions the reasons behind the continuity of the vice for a very long time and on such great extent (xiv). Additionally, questions why the same did not happen in other parts of the world, especially the new world, and why the horror had to demoralize the lives of poor Africans have always lingered in the minds of historians.
Busniss law - Essay Example This accusation is not true and causes Cornell to lose its customers to Stanford. The legal definition of defamation involves false accusation against a person, which has a potential of adversely affecting the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation or competitive advantage in trade. In order to establish a case on defamationÃ¢â¬â¢s basis, the plaintiff must prove a number of essential elements. First, the plaintiff must have been subjected to a Ã¢â¬Å"defamatory statementÃ¢â¬ (Beatty and Samuelson, p. 78). The statement must have been false and the defendant must have communicated the statement leading to injury on the plaintiff. Defamation can be either slander or libel (Beatty and Samuelson, p. 78). In the case, Stanford made an advertisement whose claim was defamatory. The claim was false and caused Cornell its customers who went to StanfordÃ¢â¬â¢s business, thereby causing financial losses, in revenues and profits, to Cornell. This forms a legal ground for defamation as was held in the case of Bose Corporation v Consumers Union of the United States (Jernings, p. 289). Cornell could therefore sue on grounds of defamation that could be either libel or slander, depending on SanfordÃ¢â¬â¢s mode of advertisement. If Stanford used a permanent medium such as an audio recording or a print media, then Cornell could sue for injuries on grounds of libel. An unrecorded oral advertisement could however lead to suit on ground of slander. The case involves Dan, a driver to EZ Delivery Company, who leaves his car in a neutral mode and does not set brakes. The car then rolls while Dan makes delivery and crashes into a petrol station, causing flames of fire. The fire spreads to a close building that collapses, causing injury to Flow. The facts of the case identify negligence that defines a breach of a duty of care by a party to another, leading to injury. This is because a driver owes elements, in his environment, a duty of care and DanÃ¢â¬â¢s
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Taylor Branch - Essay Example Pillar of Fire explores the civil upheavals between the years 1960 and 1965. Mississippi Freedom Summer, Civil Rights Act of 1964, and LBJÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Society; the book provides a clear portrait of Martin Luther King Jr. on how he was hunted by hatred, factionalism and black mail (Taylor 271). Taylor Branchs relationship with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is that Taylor has been working on hisbiography for many years. His books also chronicals the history of the civil rights movement, which was led by Dr. King. To explain the life and times of Dr. King, is like recounting a story of how America become a modern society, approximately 50 years ago after the start of the century. The centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny was to ensure that civil equity announced in 1776 will be a reality. The novel begins and ends with violence; demonstrations occur in Fla, Selma and St. Augustine; President Kennedy is assassinated and the United States of America participates deeply in Vietnam, and Malcolm X disagreed with the Islam nation, this made him face assassination; and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The president thereafter began serious lobbying for the equally important 1965 Voting Rights. The author gives Dr. King epic treatment in the book, illustrating that he was a hero. During KingÃ¢â¬â¢s life; the black Americans finished their movement from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party. 96% of black Americans voted for Lyndon Johnson in the 1964 presidential elections. However, the quasi-feudal political structure in the south gave undue influence to the racistsÃ¢â¬â¢ political leaders whose main purpose was to destroy KingÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Presidents JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s support of the civil right legislations clearly dominates this book. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership faced a major obstacle of terror through racism. The author also explains in details the violence that
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Third Journal Entry - Essay Example Based on these responsibility-related considerations, the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s story relates to the larger story of mankind as responsibilities are laid forth for accomplishment, faces challenges in both professional and personal settings, and deserves compassion based on likely occurrence of burnout in the management of work-life balance. The audience addressed comprises of English Language learners with the purpose of introducing the personality of the professor as influenced by career choice, physical appearance, and mastery of a subject. Based on the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s profile above, the choice of including the age group, the human side, likely side effects of the career choice was merited by the likely assumptions students make about their professors in general. By introducing the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and expectations within his career, the purpose of composing this profile was to give new language students an idea of what is expected of them when addressing, judging, or even responding to the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s questions, assignments, and other academic tasks. By providing an easy environment in everything humans do, everyone can handle their challenges appropriately while at the same time projecting the strengths towards a meaningful purpose that influences positive growth. Reflecting on observations about looks and body language, the included details from the interview questions include the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to burnout as well as the personal responsibility of managing work-life balance.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Culture and Business - Article Example The historical and socio-cultural difference must be factored in during the process, to facilitate the faster understanding of the negotiation, thus, making it possible for a win -win solution. The key to successful communication between different cultures is knowledge. The understanding of the problems affecting cross cultural communication and working towards overcoming the problems will ensure successful negotiations. There are four factors that affect cross cultural negotiation namely; use of time, individualism versus collectivism, role orderliness and conformity, and patterns of communication. Use of time differs from culture to culture. Most of The citizens from America, Swiss, Germans and Australian are fast paced and precise with their approach to time. There is a tendency of negotiators from these countries to keep time on the planned schedules. In other countries, time keeping especially when dealing with officers holding higher ranks in the society. A delay for two months for a project in the Middle East will be considered normal while in Europe it will consider
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Organic Food Industry in India Essay India today is on the threshold of an organic revolution and Indian Organic Food industry though at a nascent stage, has experienced steadfast growth in past few years. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s budding organic food market is transforming into worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fastest growing organic food market backed by a shift in consumer behavior and spending patterns. Trends in the Industry Organic Food Stores New Varieties on offer Rising Investments Marketing Techniques Organic Food Industry has been blossoming in India. The industry to which overseas demand/exports was oxygen to breathe will be experiencing a colossal change in the consumption pattern in times to come. With growing health awareness among the people coupled with rising disposable incomes and support from Indian government, organic food will surely secure a permanent place in Indian households. Evolving perception of organic food from being a luxury only for elite to a necessity will drive the domestic consumption. Also, overseas demand for Indian organic food will remain robust and continue to drive the industry to rare heights. Indian Organic Food industry currently pegged at USD 189 million in 2011 is stated to grow at a CAGR of ~45%, to reach USD 1733 million by 2017. SCOPE OF THE REPORT Indian Organic Food Industry at a glance Emerging trends in the industry like organic food stores, Rising investments, Marketing techniques etc Demand Supply scenario encompassing production, demand export numbers and projections Factors driving growth, Issues Challenges Government Regulations Initiatives in Indian market Major players Forecasts REASONS TO BUY To understand the various factors which are fuelling the growth and those which are/will be critical for the industry performance in the near term Comprehensive report covering all the aspects required to understand the industry performance and future prospects. The report elucidates the current market scenario of the industry and forecasts key parameters which helps to anticipate the industry performance A burgeoning organic market beckons to IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s rural farmers Indian farmers have started to reap dividends from their budding interest in organic farming. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long back, around seven years ago, when Indian farmers started to go organic. In 2006-07, around 4. 32 lakh ha reported organic produce Ã¢â¬â a large portion came from wild and non-agricultural land Ã¢â¬â which has now reached around 11 lakh ha, as per the recent report Ã¢â¬ËThe World of Organic Agriculture, 2013Ã¢â¬â¢ by FiBL and IFOAM (Research Institute of Organic Agriculture and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements). Ã¢â¬Å"The growth rate has reached around 20% per year, much higher than early expectations,Ã¢â¬ says Krishan Chandra, director, National Centre of Organic Farming. The current market for organic foods in India is pegged at Rs. 2,500 crore, which according to ASSOCHAM, is expected to reach Rs. 6,000 crore by 2015. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll still leave us at 1% of the global market. Thus, a huge potential is seen in the nascent Indian organic sector. Ã¢â¬Å"Apart from states like Sikkim or MP, weÃ¢â¬â¢re seeing a rising interest in Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, UP and Bihar,Ã¢â¬ says Chandra. India outnumbers every other country in terms of organic producers with an estimated 5,47,591. Organic products, which until now were mainly being exported, are now finding consumers in the domestic market. Ã¢â¬Å"Even Tier II cities like Nagpur, Allahabad, Gorakhpur and Bhatinda show an increase in organic consumption,Ã¢â¬ says Sunil Kumar, AGM at Morarka Rural Research Foundation. According to a survey of 1,000 consumers in ten cities done by Morarka Organic Foods, around 30% of Indian consumers preferred organic products and were even prepared to pay 10 to 20% more for them. Ã¢â¬Å"Soil abused by chemical fertiliser excesses takes more time to produce comparable yields. Although, the cost of organic cultivation is much less, reducing cost incurred in purchasing costly inputs,Ã¢â¬ says Rohitashwa Ghakar, Project Head, International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture. * Regions reap their rewards North Growth: In UP, organic certification has gone up 36 fold in the last six years. The area under organic cultivation rose from 3,034 to 111,644 ha. However, most of the organic farming is under a corporate-farmer contract. In Haryana, with hardly any takers till 2008, organic crops today are produced in more than 10,000 ha. However, Punjab farmers have shown little interest. Of the total 4046 lakh ha of land under cultivation, only a minuscule portion 2104 ha is under organic farming. Popular organic crops: Nearly 40,000 farmers in UP are growing organic wheat, rice, pulses, maize, and numerous herbs like Tulsi, Ashwagandh, Aloe Vera. Haryana grows mostly vegetables like tomato, beans, or fruits like summer-squash, melons and mangoes. Ã¢â¬Å"Although I sell the produce in Delhi, most of it goes to retail chainsÃ¢â¬ , says Kanwal Chauhan, a farmer in Sonepat. Challenges: Punjab State FarmersÃ¢â¬â¢ Commission consultant Dr PS Rangi feels that organic farming cannot feed the entire country. Ã¢â¬Å"One can grow vegetables or some wheat for personal use, but it canÃ¢â¬â¢t be grown on a large scale. Ã¢â¬ (By Pankaj Jaiswal, Rajesh Moudgil and Gurpreet Nibber) South Growth: In Kerala, at least 40 % of the farming is organic and the state is set to become the second fully organic state after Sikkim in 2016. From 7,000 ha in 2007, the state has spread organic cultivation to 16,000 ha. In Andhra Pradesh another 11,500 ha would be added to the current 4273. 54 ha this year. In Karnataka, under the organic programmes of the state, an area of 1,18,676 ha has seen organic farming benefiting around one lakh farmers, said R Anuradha, agriculture department. Popular organic crops: More than grains and pulses in Kerala organic farming is prevalent in cash crops, rice and vegetables. In AndhraÃ¢â¬â¢s smaller towns and villages, people are slowly shifting to organically grown rice, ragi and other millets. In Karnataka, crops like pepper, vanilla, coffee, nutmeg Ã¢â¬â which are not available in other parts of India Ã¢â¬â are a popular choice. Challenges: In large tracts of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s tribal belt like Karnataka and AP, the farmers have engaged in slash/burn farming for generations and do not use any pesticide or fertilizer. There have been no efforts to take this into account. (By Ramesh Babu, Ashok Das and Naveen Ammembala) North East Growth: 30. 92 lakh ha out of the net cultivated area of 43 lakh ha in the region have never seen the use of chemical fertilisers. Almost 89% of farmland is categorised as organic in Mizoram, which passed an Organic Act in 2004. Whereas Meghalaya, a major strawberry producer, eyes a turnout of 500 MT from the current 250 MT a year. Popular organic crops: Much of the area in the region is taken up by paddy, vegetables and fruits such as grapes. The more prosperous farmers are into cultivation of medicinal plants, rose and anthurium, primarily for export. Ã¢â¬Å"Mizoram has become the largest anthurium flower producer in India, owing to almost 98% of women anthurium growers,Ã¢â¬ said Samuel Rosanglura of MizoramÃ¢â¬â¢s horticulture department. Challenges: Most state governments promote vermi-compost and manure in the region since bio-fertilisers and bio-pesticides are difficult to access. (By Rahul Karmakar) West Growth: Gujarat has seen substantial growth in organic farming. It currently utilises around 42,000 ha under organic farming. Maharashtra has been a front runner in organic farming with around 6. 5 lakh ha under it, a huge rise from 18,786 ha in 2005-06. In Rajasthan, there has been a ten-fold increase. From around 22,000 ha in 2005-06, the state has taken a leap to 2,17,712 ha. Popular organic crops: Gujarat grows organic wheat, pulses and fruits like mango, chikoo and papaya. While cotton, turmeric, ginger are some crops grown in Rajasthan. In Maharashtra, cotton, cereals, fruits dominate the organic farming scene. The state has initiated a pilot project to grow grapes that will produce organic wine. Challenges: Ã¢â¬Å"Tribals who hardly use chemical fertilisers are left out of organic benefits,Ã¢â¬ says Kapil Shah of Jatan Trust that promotes organic farming. (By Mahesh Langa) Yoav Lev was a 22-year-old backpacker when he first came to India in 1987. A graduate from an agricultural boarding school in Israel, he came seeking inner peace from his spiritual guru, the late H. W. L. Poonja of Lucknow, better known as Papaji. The quest was to find my true purpose and true self, he says. He eventually stayed on in India, taking on a new name, Bharat Mitra, and is currently the Founder and President of Organic India, one of Indias leading organic foods companies. It ended 2012 with Rs 60 crore revenues and hopes to reach Rs 90 crore this year, with about half of its sales in India. Five years ago, 75 per cent of our revenue came from exports and the rest from the domestic market. Now both markets have equal share:Raj Seelam Photo: A Prabhakar Rao Organic foods are those made from agricultural products grown without the use of pesticides or chemical fertilisers. It was from Papaji that Lev learnt the healing power of tulsi (basil plant). By 1997, he had begun cultivating three types of tulsi organically in Azamgarh in eastern Uttar Pradesh. In 2006 he launched Organic India with tulsi tea as its flagship product. Today, the company makes 18 different flavours of tulsi tea and 33 different herbal formulations or supplements, which are said to have medicinal value. He is gearing up to launch a complete range of organic food items, including rice and pulses. We are in the final stages of a very promising joint venture to launch a comprehensive range of products both for the Indian market and for exports, says Lev. He prefers not to reveal the name of the well known Indian company he is negotiating with. Lev is not alone. A clutch of entrepreneurs in India is betting big on the domestic organic food market . Consider Raj Seelam, an Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad alumnus. When Lev first took up tulsi cultivation, some 1,200 km down south in Hyderabad, Seelam was still selling pesticides and fertilisers. From 1988 to 2000, he worked in the farm inputs division of E. I. D Parry, a Murugappa Group company, one of the largest industrial groups in India. It gave me a chance to interact closely with farmers and see the havoc that indiscriminate use of pesticides can create, he says. This spurred him to consider organic farming, even though he was aware agribusinesses rarely succeed in India, because of low margins and excessive government control. Today, his company, Sresta Natural Bioproducts, sells a range of 200 organic products in India and overseas from rice, pulses, sugar, and juices to breakfast cereals and jams. Five years ago, 75 per cent of our revenue came from exports and the balance from the domestic market. Now both markets have equal share, he says. Indeed, the demand for organic foods in India has seen a sharp growth in recent years. While earlier, organic food producers primarily aimed at exports to Europe and the United States, there is now a gradual shift. The demand for organic foods has been growing and today we stock a range of around 38 different organic foods in 40 stores as against just about half a dozen stores three years ago, says S. Jagdish Krishnan, Chief Operating Officer of the retail and bakery divisions of Heritage Foods, an organic food company with a big presence in Bangalore, Chennai and Hyderabad. Most of the big retail chains now stock organic products, including Godrej Natures Basket, Hyper City, Food Bazaar, More, Nilgiris, Spencers and Tesco Starbazar. While no of-ficial figures are available, industry estimates put the organic food market within India at close to Rs 100 crore, having grown five-fold in the last six years. When Seelam began organic cultivation in 2004, not a single domestic retailer was willing to stock his products. They feared stocks would not move, since organic foods are significantly more expensive than conventional foods. That is partly due to higher processing costs, since they choose to eschew chemical additives, as well as higher packaging costs, to ensure a reasonably long shelf life. A kilo of Sona Masuri rice, a well known brand, for instance, sells at Rs 40 per kg while organic rice of the same variety costs Rs 60 per kg. Again, tur dal (a commonly used variety of pulses in India) is available at Rs 90 per kg while its organic version costs Rs 140 per kg. This is despite the doubling of prices of these commodities in the past three years, while the organic variants have stayed at almost the same price levels. Seelam was forced to focus on exports. But unwilling to give up on the local market, he set up his own retail stores in four cities Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pune and Chennai to promote organic products. Today, almost every major retail outlet is willing to stock his products. He has a presence in close to 40 cities and towns, ranging from Patiala in the north to Guntur in the south, and broke even last year. So, why have domestic consumers taken to organic foods despite their cost? Mukesh Gupta, Director of Morarka Organic, which mainly focuses on the domestic market, attributes it to rising disposable incomes and improved awareness about the health benefits of organic foods. From 2007 to 2012, the average middle class income in India has shot up. The consumer is willing to pay more for good quality food, he says. Between 2007 and 2012, the average middle class income in India has shot up. The consumer is willing to pay more for goodquality food: Mukesh Gupta Photo: Vivan Mehra/www. indiatodayimages. com The demand for organic foods will only grow in India, organic food producers claim, with the implementation of the Food Safety and Standards Act from February this year. The new law sets more stringent standards of food safety raising the bar on the quality of food manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import. The stress on quality under the new Act will push up prices of foodstuff made using conventional techniques, reducing the price differential with organic food, and boosting sales, asserts Gupta. However, consumers would do well to ensure that they only buy certified organic products, say producers. Organic food products manufactured in and exported from India are marked with the India Organic certification mark issued by certification agencies accredited under the the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) and monitored by the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). Most of the ing organic food companies in India voluntarily opt for this certification, though it is not mandatory for domestic sales. The demand for certified organic foods has been growing since 2001. These are produced by about 570,000 small farmers in India with 500,000 hectares under cultivation, says National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) Organic products are grown under a system of agriculture without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides with an environmentally and socially responsible approach. This is a method of farming that works at grass root level preserving the reproductive and regenerative capacity of the soil, good plant nutrition, and sound soil management, produces nutritious food rich in vitality which has resistance to diseases. India is bestowed with lot of potential to produce all varieties of organic products due to its various agro climatic regions. In several parts of the country, the inherited tradition of organic farming is an added advantage. This holds promise for the organic producers to tap the market which is growing steadily in the domestic market related to the export market. Currently, India ranks 33rd in terms of total land under organic cultivation and 88th position for agriculture land under organic crops to total farming area. The cultivated land under certification is around 4. 43 million Ha ( 2010-11). The Government of India has implemented the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP). The national programme involves the accreditation programme for certification bodies, norms for organic production, promotion of organic farming etc. The NPOP standards for production and accreditation system have been recognized by European Commission and Switzerland as equivalent to their country standards. Similarly, USDA has recognized NPOP conformity assessment procedures of accreditation as equivalent to that of US. With these recognitions, Indian organic products duly certified by the accredited certification bodies of India are accepted by the importing countries. PRODUCTION India produced around 3. 88 million MT of certified organic products which includes all varieties of food products namely Basmati rice, Pulses, Honey, Tea, Spices, Coffee, Oil Seeds, Fruits, Processed food, Cereals, Herbal medicines and there value added products. The production is not limited to the edible sector but also produces organic cotton fiber, garments, cosmetics, functional food products, body care products, etc. EXPORTS India exported 86 items last year (2010-11) with the total volume of 69837 MT. The export realization was around 157. 22 million US $ registering a 33% growth over the previous year. Organic products are mainly exported to EU, US, Australia, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, South Africa and Middle East. Oil Crops (except Sesame) leads among the products exported (17966 MT).
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales Abstract The objective of the Test and Measurement unit is to assist students get to understand the importance and the need of tests and measurement in the field of psychology. During counselling psychology, many testes and measurements are applied in the identification as well as definition behaviours as well as the mental state of clients. Among them is the Social Skill Improvement Rating System, which is just a taste that was developed to measure and assess social deficits within a person. The system is administered by high psychometric properties. It has been noted that, it has excellent internal consistency, adequate reliability as well as excellent to adequate excellent test-retest reliability. The samples used in testing reliability and validity are adequate. The tests in one way or the other addresses the significance of evidence-based multi-tired assessment that are applied when helping student to develop, improve as well as maintain their useful social skills. As a family, SSIS includes performance screening, class wide intervention program, rating scales as well as intervention guide. The instrument is a revised version of the most used SSRS, which enjoys strong history of use in most schools. In addition, the social skill improvement system rating scales, tent to have very strong psychometric features, along with scoring, makes the test ideally suitable to demands of screening, development of interventions as well as classifications in the middle schools. On the other hand, though there is existence of studies along with the information don the Social Skill Rating System, on the other hand, much has not been done to on the current SSIS These tests are best used within the context of four-phase problem solving processes. By this model, it is not easy for one to ignore the main purpose of the assignment, and that no matter the specific aim for waiting to assess SEL competencies, one tent to concentrate on his/her own assessment information in a manner that helps one the most significant questions. Tests and Measurements: Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales Introduction In the course, Tests and Measurements, enables one to gained understandings about the significance, need, and use of tests and measurements in the Psychology field. Psychology in its self is a broad field that can be applied in multiple settings, focusing on different aspects, yet operating with the same direction and purpose. Psychology studies the mental state and behaviour of individuals. In order to obtain knowledge about individuals, as such, Psychologists and trained professionals establish and develop procedures that are meant to identify and define specifics about an individual. These procedures are considered as Tests and Measurements, which were developed to diagnose and assess individuals through using subject-specific constructs to provide logical reason and evidence to validate predictions or proposed diagnosis. In Psychology, different diagnosis, behaviours, and disorders have been defined and identified through a wide array of tests and measurements. With the diversity in tests and measurements, psychologists are able to define most mental states and behaviours presented by individuals. Fields of Psychology, like Clinical, Educational, Industrial-Organization, and Counselling, all have specific uses of tests and measurements to clearly define behaviours and mental statuses and establish treatment, diagnosis intervention, and therapeutic method interventions. With a specialization in Counselling Psychology, professionals deal with the intrapsychic of a client. Questions that counselling psychologists work to identify for client clarification are, How does the client view themselves? What strengths/weaknesses does the client identify as existing? How are the clients social life, social relationships, and professional relations? These are questions that Counselling Psychologists seeks to unde rstand and use for client comprehension and clarity. This step commences as the starting point for Counselling Psychologists to rebuild and rehabilitate a client, (Psychcorp.com, 2011). In counselling psychology, multiple tests and measurements are used to identify and define behaviours and mental state of the client. The original Social Skills Rating Skills, which is now known as The Social Skills Improvement Rating System, is a test developed to measure and assesses social deficits within a person. This psychological test was intended to serve as a tool in identifying behaviours of a person, in order to, diagnose and treat to improve the social aspects of the person. With a purpose to build strengths, healthy relationships, and positive outlooks about the self, the SSIS is a relevant assessment that can be used by counselling psychologists, in order to obtain results about an individuals mental state about the self, social life, and personal lifestyle. In this paper, an attempt will be made to define and describe the SSIS and how it could be used in Counselling Psychology. Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales This test was developed by Elliot, Husse Gresham, this social skill rating system was published in 1990 by the American Guidance services. The social skill improvement system (SSIS), (Gresham Elliot), is just a comprehensive system of social skills assessment as well as the intervention tool for use with children and as well as these who are still in adolescence from the age of 3 years to 18 years, (Diperna, Volpe, 2005).. For my final paper, I have chosen to discuss the measurement Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), which is newly revised as the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales (SSiS). The newly revised version of the Social Skills Rating System is now the Social Skills Improvement System, which includes improvements in psychometrics, norms, and a new set of subscales (Psychcorp.com, 2011), as well as, a Spanish edition. Gresham and Elliot (2008) states that, Ninety percent of the items were new or substantially revised (paragraph 5). The Social Skills Improvement is intended to identify any social deficits, recognizing positive behaviours, as well as, negative behaviours, in students age ranging from 3 to 18. The SSIS includes three forms to identify social behaviours, the teacher-parent-student forms, which purposes are to evaluate behaviours at home, community, and within the school. Psychometric Qualities of the Test Standardization SSIS is a self-administered assessment, with a completion time between 10-25 minutes. The newly revised SSIS consists of technically sound measures when referring to the norms (Gresham Elliot, 2008). The norm group consisted of a mixture of 4,700 3-18 year old students. The sample was diverse and included representative numbers of children with educational disabilities and mental disorders, making the norms well-rounded and inclusive of all different cases of student descriptions. Reliability The revised Social Skills Rating System includes the same three forms as the original SSRS, the teacher, parent, and student, yet with better internal consistency reliability. Each form of the SSIS and there standard scores resulted in displaying consistent reliability. Test-retest methods were done over a 43-66 day time period and the results were as follow, for the Teacher form, results describe median adjusted correlations of .83 across 43-day intervals, with median adjusted correlations of .86 across 61-day intervals for the Parent form, and median adjusted correlations of .79 across 66-day intervals for the Student form (Gresham Elliot, 2008a). Validity According to Gresham Elliot (2008a), SSIS Rating Scales include three useful validity scales that allow examiners to judge the veracity of ratters: an F scale that will be elevated when ratters describe students as having an unrealistic number of problems; a response pattern index that is elevated if ratters provide an unusual pattern of responses (e.g., provides the same response to most of the items or provides a highly variable number of responses); and a response consistency index that is elevated if ratters complete similar items in very different ways(,paragraph 3). The validity of the construct has obviously made major and effective improvements, by measuring exactly what it is intended to measure. Correlations of the scales with measuring similar behaviour were high, with measurements of non-similar behaviours not correlating, (Gresham Elliot, 2008b). Uses of Tests The social skill improvement system in one way or the other addresses the significance for an evidence-based, multi-tired assessment that are used in the process of helping students to develop, improve as well as maintain much important social skills. Such like tools contained in the test, can be used early in the school years for the facilitation of the universal screening of these students who happen to be at risk for academic or even social behaviour difficulties. In one way or the other, it helps to plan for the interventions for improving such like behaviours, as well as evaluating progress on skills that are much targeted after the intervention. This assessment test contains tools that are particularly significant when evaluating students. The SSIS family of assessment as well as intervention tools include: performance screening guide; this tool offers universal screening of the behaviour which can be termed as being prosaically. Some of such like behaviours are math skills, reading skills as well as motivation to learn for all students in the whole classroom in not more than 20 minutes. Another tool is class-wide intervention program; this tool provides teachers as well as other professionals social skills instructional scripts as well as teaching resources for the top ten skills that tent to be much critical to the functioning of all students in particular classroom. The next tool is Rating Scales; this tool is concerned with offering targeted as well as comprehensive assessment of a persons social skills, problem behaviours along with academic competence. The last but not least toll is intervention guide; this provides in-depth social skills intervention for about 20 keystone social skills that are directly connecte d to SSIS Rating Scales outcomes, (Nihira, Leland, Lambert,1993).. Critique of the Test Strength This program is a revised version of the most used SSRS, which enjoys strong history of use in most schools. This instrument in addition contains assessment intervention records, which allows the integration of social skill assessment data with planned intervention strategies, as an effect, it allows professional to easily develop interventions that are based on the assessment results. Also, the instrument has a manual which clearly provides detailed descriptions of all SSRS objectives and goals, on top of having a guide that is user friendly. Nevertheless, the instrument test is easy to administer and much easy to score. In addition, the social skill improvement system rating scales, tent to have very strong psychometric features, along with scoring, makes the test ideally suitable to demands of screening, development of interventions as well as classifications in the middle schools. In addition, there exist SSRS versions that also provide further information that can be very much s ignificant in the process of planning on top of the evaluation intervention programming. Last but not least, the instrument use of multiple rater system provides a more broad-based assessment of social skills than any other instrument that uses a single rater system, like the elf reporting instrument, (Cynthia, Kenn, 2010). Another thing is that, the test measurement provides important needs assessment data for program planning. In addition, it also offers insight into the effectiveness of nationwide prevention as well as health behavioural initiatives that are designed to reach much education as well as counselling related objectives across the country. SSRS also produces the estimates of the prevalence of major adolescence behavioural risks and provides much crucial information for school officers, human service agency, policymakers along with parents, who are working in harmony optimum health young individuals globally. Weaknesses Though there is existence of studies along with the information don the Social Skill Rating System, on the other hand, much has not been done to on the current SSIS. In addition, the costs that are involved during SSIS are too high compared to other surveys. It also requires the knowledge of compiling data as well as coming up with reports is also required; this is based on the fact that, in the software package, it is not included. This instrument also faces the problem of standardization sample, as well as mixed reliability levels across all forms. Psychometric Qualities The instrument has standard scores which can be converted to percentile rank scores. The instrument furthermore provides separate norms for girls as well as boys, as well as these with and without disabilities. The high levels of internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities, content along with validity, have been reported by many writers. The computer software apart from facilitating scoring and reporting, it provides behavioural objectives and suggestions for planning purposes. A version that is scannable, offers group reporting options. Other than sorting, it arranges the information as per the group, classroom, individuals, schools, grades, gender, ethnicity, time and districts, (Mathews, Whang, Fawcett, 1980). The Tests Application in Counseling Psychology Setting Purpose The social skill rating system was published for the purpose of identifying and classification of social behaviours. In addition, it was also published for the purpose of assisting in the development of appropriate interventions for those who are identified as having social behaviour problems. Last but not least, the instrument was created for the purpose of addressing the significance for an evidence-based, multi-tired assessment that are used in the process of helping students to develop, improve as well as maintain much important social skills. Though theoretically is all kinds of children might be given the test, the test is purposefully geared towards handicapped children or children with mild to moderate learning difficulties. The instrument also can be used in the identification of social behaviour strengths, school or home-based behavioural interventions. Benefits or Usefulness The instrument is much useful in providing much comprehensive image or picture of children social behaviours. Another benefit accrued from SSIS is that, the three rating forms that are applied in the Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales, offers much flexibility to the system. On the other hand, the instrument helps these using it like teachers and counselling professionals to plan for the appropriate intervention very quickly. Generally, the social skills rating systems allows individuals to get a more complete picture of social behaviours from educators, guardians and parents, and even students themselves. It helps in the evaluation of broad range of socially validated behaviours that affects teacher-student relations, academic performance, and peer acceptance among others. Challenges This instrument faces the challenge of sample standardization and mixed reliability levels across the forms. Another challenge is that, the instrument does not provide both appropriate and inappropriate social skills, so its users particularly focuses on the negative aspects of the behaviours of children other than taking into account also the positive aspects. Though there is existence of studies along with the information on the Social Skill Rating System, on the other hand, the instrument faces a challenge of having done less on the current SSIS; as a result, the current SSIS has little information. Another challenge faced by this system is that, the costs that are involved during SSIS are too high compared to other surveys. It also requires the knowledge of compiling data as well as coming up with reports is also required; this is based on the fact that, in the software package, it is not included, in conjunction with this challenge, only professionals trained in the psychology testing are in a position of interpreting the outcome, though it can be administered by any personel.. This instrument also faces the problem of standardization sample, as well as mixed reliability levels across all forms, (Malecki Demaray, 2002). How Results Would Be Used These tests are best used within the context of four-phase problem solving processes. By this model, it is not easy for one to ignore the main purpose of the assignment, and that no matter the specific aim for waiting to assess SEL competencies, one tent to concentrate on his/her own assessment information in a manner that helps one the most significant questions. The main function of the of the first phase which is termed as identification and clarification is to answer some basic questions that leads to the articulation clearly on the reasons that lead to the assessment undertaking in the first place. Din most cases, ones students are the main focus of the assessment; however the objectives of pursing the assessment might be far much complicated. In the data collection stage which is grades as phase 2, the counsellor collects the information needed that is needed during counselling. It is recommended that, the counsellor gives room for the assessment purpose, student character as well as the problem being addressed be the guiding principles to the selection and choice of appropriate procedures and specific tools, as this will provide necessary information. After all these, consider whether some means of information gathering are much significant that others, this is based on the student nature, assessment problem and the situation. Then the counsellor is to align the available tools to fit within the budget, (Heber, 1961). In the third phase which is co9nsidered to being the analysis stage, is where in detail, the data is now analysed. It should be checked if the available data confirms with the assessment problem. There need also to be an identification of specific issues that might be contributing to the problem in question. On top of it all, the councillor needs to determine if more information is needed to solve the problem in hand, a part from the one having. After all these, the counsellor is supposed to analyse any hindrance that might occur during problem solving, and if more information can be found in the existing school records. In case of any further data collection, an individual with the capability of doing that within the shortest time is identified. In the fourth phase identified as solution and evaluation, the target of the intention need to be identified based on the available information. In this stage, the counsellor needs to identify the most appropriate types of interventions or programs in the surroundings. An available resource is a very important factor to consider while carrying out this intervention, so the counsellor has to determine the resources available, which will then control the type of intervention used. As an effect, the type of intervention will determine if data collection ought to be continuous. Last but not least, the counsellor decides on the means of assessment to be used when evaluating the effectiveness of the program or the intervention, (Myers Diener, 1995). Conclusion Social Skill Improvement System is among other assessment system that professionals interested in assessing social-emotional competences of both children and youngsters. The forms of SSIS are just an update of what initially was called social skill rating system. The SSIS ratings forms include cross-informant tools that are being used by teachers, parents, guardians, children as well as these in the adolescent stage. The scales of SSIOS-Rating scales has been used when assessing children with behavioural and interpersonal skills problems, screen for problem behaviours, and identify children encountering social behaviour risk and poor academic performances. The social skills scales are used when measuring positive social behaviours like cooperation and empathy, as well as respect, amongst others. The problem behaviour scale on the other hand, measures behaviours that usually interfere with positive social skills. They can be categorized under; internalizing skills, externalizing skill s, as well as the hyperactivity. Lastly, academic competence skills, on its part offers quick estimate of academic functioning. In future, the SSIS will be intended for children and adolescent. It will be used in the identification of social skills deficit, as well as deficits in school related in to select skills that ought to be targeted during training, as well as the social skills training success evaluation. It also be used to yield the knowledge of student strength s deficiencies. Last but not least, in future, the SSIS will be used in the social behaviour exhibited by youngsters, both children and the adolescence in a classroom setting.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The company I have chosen to design database software for is called Multi-installations. They are a private limited company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of high tech security doors and screens. 1.1 Introduction The company I have chosen to design database software for is called Multi-installations. They are a private limited company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of high tech security doors and screens. They do many mail shots per month and send up to four brochures to any company/client within a specified department. The company have often made mistakes as to when they do a mail shot many companies receive the same brochure twice or receive a brochure that they do not require. 1.2 Investigation At the moment there is not a current computer based system in place. Although every time a mail shot is done the company logs this manually in a book and record what brochure was sent to which company. The current problem is that every time a mail shot is done someone must look through the books previous records to see if a particular brochure has been sent to that particular company. This is proving to be a long method as often the person checking the book misses out a company that has already been sent that particular brochure, and this results in the company loosing out as more brochure are used up, and the company receiving the brochure will simply be annoyed with the amount of brochure s receives from Multi-installations and simply throws them away. I asked the company the following questions: 1. What sort of manual system is there in place at the moment? 2. How is the data recorded when a new company needs to be sent a brochure? 3. How is the data stored and can it be accessed easily? 4. Is there a backup copy of your manual system? 5. What problems are you having with the current system? 6. What functions would you like the new database to perform? 7. Will the information in the database need to be protected that only specific people have access to it? 8. Do you think the new computerised system will save time and money? The main problem with the current manual system is that every time a new company is sent a brochure it must be logged in a book. This book contains lists of companies that have already been sent that specific brochure. The current user must look through all the lists to see if that company has been sent that specific brochure. 1.3 Requirements of the New System
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The dress code, an essential tool for preventing people from offending others both intentionally and unintentionally. School, a place of education. Education of necessary subjects for becoming a good citizen. Not education of outfits that show more than they hide. No matter what people say, school is NOT a fashion show. Freedom of Expression, a true right thatÃ¢â¬â¢s true meaning is being demolished. The school must have control over the dress code and enforce it. If the school couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t control what people wear, just think what there control over the people would be! I intend to tell you why I believe this in more detail. Beer slogans and other offensive and truly inappropriate clothing must not be worn to school. It is argued that people see it enough on TV, in magazines etc, but think about...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
In the beginning of the 20th century, all of Africa was in European hands except for just one country. Despite all the factors against this one country, Ethiopia, in1896 they successfully defended themselves from the Italians in the Battle of Adwa. Unfortunately, when the Italians invaded a second time in 1935, the Ethiopians were not so successful. How come the Ethiopians were defeated when not 50 years earlier they were victorious? Was the advance in technology to much for the Ethiopians to combat or was it the lack of good leadership that they once had in the years leading up to the second invasion. I believe that due to the lack of good leadership before and during the second Italian invasion attributed to the defeat of Ethiopia, rather than their technological deficiencies. To first understand the loss in the second war we must first briefly look at their victory in the first war. In this conflict Ethiopia defeated the Italians because their leaders made all the right choices before and during the war. It started with Emperor Tewodros II, who Ã¢â¬Å"reunified the Ethiopia under a single emperorÃ¢â¬ . Before that Ethiopia was in great disarray, with many different kings and warlords ruled different parts of Ethiopia. This was a crucial step in defeating the Italian because without the full cooperation of all the Ethiopian warlords, than the Italian military would have easily defeated the fragmented Ethiopian states. Another crucial decision that Tewodros II made was to modernize the Ethiopian military with firearms. He learned this lesson harshly after a tough defeat from the modern equipped Egyptian army and from this experience he used it to better his empire. With just these two simple improvements Ethiopia was now in ... ...talian bullets ever could. Even in our time, the most modern army like the United States is not assured victory against a less advanced foe like the Taliban. In the end, it all comes down to the soldiers training, and the leadership of their superiors. WORKS CITED Del Boca, Angelo. Guerra d'Abissinia. Translated by Giangiacomo Feltrinelli. The Ethiopian War 1935-1941, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1969. Milkias, Paulos. The Battle of Adwa. N.p.: Algora Publishing, 2005. Nicolle, David, and Raffaele Ruggeri. The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935-36. London: Osprey Military, 1997. Wienholt, Arnold. The Africans' Last Stronghold. London: John Long, 1938. Gilbert, Erik, and Jonathan T. Reynolds. Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Boston: Pearson, 2012.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
McDonalds one of the largest fast food selling restaurant chains in the world was established in 1940 by two brothers Richard and Maurice McDonalds. This restaurant started its business as a barbeque restaurant but latter specialized in making ham burgers, the restaurant got the attention of Ray Kroc an American businessman who became the franchising agent of McDonalds in 1955 and took McDonalds to its international growth. Ray Kroc made the McDonalds Corporation and added certain training facilities for employees which made McDonalds a divine training institution for student. McDonalds Corporation also introduced the Hamburger University which laid the very sole of quality management in students and provided scholarships to excel students and student employees of McDonalds. 1) International And Domestic Marketing Principles Of McDonalds: McDonalds, the global fast food giant with more than 34,000 local eating joints serving nearly 69 million people in 119 countries each day, has a substantial presence in Pakistan. Though McDonalds insists on a universal standard the fast food behemoth still allows customization of its products and services meeting a particular business need. Yet the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s franchisees across geographies have a similar approach to business in multiple parameters. A marked compatibility with regard to quality and service between McDonald restaurants, even they are far apart from each other in terms of geographical location, is the hallmark of the fast food giant. McDonalds Pakistan recognizes its socio-cultural context, hence has replaced traditional hamburger for halal food free of pork. The fast food chain also prefers to procure meat from local halal abattoir. The product promotion strategies, one of the key areas of marketing principles, always need to be agreed upon in order to optimize the market performance of McDonald. The US based companyÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion in Pakistan would require working on commercials that can appeal to the local customers under the guidelines of Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA). 2) Growing Global Market Environment Of McDonalds: McDonald together with Lakson Group has incorporated Siza Foods (Pvt) Ltd to own a chain of 22 restaurants in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Hyderabad & Faisalabad. McDonald relies on franchisee, or affiliated or organic expansion as a model for its growth. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s overseas growth plan including its Pakistan market must be in line with its current revenue, if not more. Also, the food chain would like its primary products to top its menu such as cheeseburgers, chicken, French fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. However, certain regional markets such as Pakistan must adapt to local demand for halal meat which would require hamburger to be replaced by halal meat. Also, the company should always remain prepared to changing consumer tastes Ã¢â¬â many regional customers forced McDonald to include salads, fish, wraps, smoothies and fruit. The local delicacies of Pakistan such as grilled Tandoori chicken may in the future menu of McDonald. Acquisition of rival businesses In this era of development and innovation McDonalds USA being highly flourished in its domestic market is spreading its business internationally. In growing globally McDonalds USA considered franchising as their mean, which is a safe, less costly and easy method with minimum legal obligations. McDonalds opened its first franchise in 1955 by Ray Kroc, who also established the McDonalds Corporation. Since then McDonalds is growing its business and now operates in 119 countries. In Pakistan McDonalds has given franchising rights to Lakson Group of Companies headed by Mr. Amin Lakhani. McDonalds Pakistan opened its first franchise in September 1998 in the city of Lahore, a week later it opened another franchise in Karachi and thus it went on increasing its franchises in 8 big cities of Pakistan. McDonalds USA however has taken over few small scale fast food retailers, who were facing difficulty in competing with competitors in the business. 3) Practical Marketing Cross Cultural Implication Of McDonalds Operation Abroad: McDonalds USA being in its domestic market is well aware of the cultural implication prevailing in USA, which tends the growth of McDonalds as it knows the language, culture, society and laws of the country. In case of McDonalds Pakistan there are barriers to McDonalds USA on various grounds like power distance, individualism, uncertainty, masculinity and long term orientation. In Pakistan the society is based on certain social and cultural grounds that does not allow people will less experience to participate in decision making, in this way there is an unjust power distribution were people are feel bound and limited as to decisions made by elders. In Pakistan in all most all fields of business individualism is observed where task are being created by directors which are then followed by managers and carried on to subordinates, in a way were the directors take all stress of creating the idea rather than considering a group discussion on the point. In Pakistan the uncertainty element is high due to lack of security issue in the country and unstable law and order prevailing in the country, which tends businesses to be very cautious when taking certain business decisions. The socio-culture environment in Pakistan is based on a male dominant society, were the decision making is restricted to male members of society and there is a lack of equality of thoughts as women mostly are not allowed to part in decision making. Pakistan being one of the underdeveloped countries is far from looking at long term orientation as country faces many financial and economic crises which restricts businesses to look at long term orientation and compels them to take part in short term goals. 4) Current And Potential Cultural Differences: Food industries wither prevailing in its domestic or international market has to follow cultural trends of the country in which it is to operate. In the context of McDonalds USA and McDonalds Pakistan both prevail in countries with entirely different cultural grounds. The culture prevailing in USA is quiet broad minded, where they consider freedom of speech, less religious resistance and equality of gender. Being so McDonalds USA enjoys many privileges due to freedom of speech and less religious resistance, where they can sell their products without any regards of being halal or haram, they can make advertisements keeping away from certain explicit materials which are exempted by American law. In American society equality of gender allows women to work for their living which has helped McDonalds USA to recruit female staff in their stores. The culture of Pakistan is narrow minded as compared to USA , where freedom of speech is limited within social, moral and religious grounds, religion plays a vital role in almost every expect of life and gender equality is not observed as women are not encouraged to work and participate in career building activities. In this case McDonalds Pakistan has to work in limitation of Islamic Sharia and has to make its products with halal ingredients. McDonalds Pakistan also has to make advertisement of its products in limitation of rules set by PEMRA. In Pakistan women are not allowed by their families to work in an environment where they would be serving men or dressed in an uncultured manner which restricts women to work in a food chain like McDonalds. First and foremost, according to a Hadith in Al-Tirmidhi, it has been narrated by Hadhrat Abu Darda (Radi Allah Anho) that alcohol is the key to all evil; this is consuming it or selling it. It is totally Haraam to sell alcohol and the income earned is also Haraam. It is Haraam for a Muslim to sell something that is Haraam for him to eat or use. The Holy Prophet, Hadhrat Muhammad-ur Rasullullaah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, Ã¢â¬Å"If Allah TaaÃ¢â¬â¢la makes Haraam the consumption of something; He also makes Haraam its transaction.Ã¢â¬ (Musnad Ahmad, Hadith no. 2546) (2.1) Project Management Techniquesof McDonalds: McDonalds USA a company form by merger of two companies initiated its project with a franchise selling burgers and milk shakes. The company followed the traditional approach of project management techniques were they planned and designed their production, quality, distribution, staffing criteria and location. After the planning and designing of these ideas by McDonalds USA they started execution of these ideas and concentrated on further construction of these ideas. McDonalds USA after putting its ideas in action worked on ways to control and monitor it by making certain software that would allow it check its sales, inventory and financial summary in real time. This project development technique used by McDonalds USA has made its business successful in USA to a great extent and has also created an image in the international market which is spreading its business across the globe. PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s market being a complex and unfamiliar market for McDonalds USA has led to providing franchising authority to Lakson group of companies a leading business group in Pakistan, which knows the business trends in the country and how to act in according to it. This group has helped McDonalds Pakistan to grow in a flourishing manner as most elements in the country are against American commodities. (2.2) Different Stages of McDonalds international marketing development including: Ã¢â¬â Domestic Ã¢â¬â Ethnocentric Ã¢â¬â Polycentric and Ã¢â¬â Geocentric. These different stages were introduced Howard V in 1969. These stages indicate the staffing preferences of any firm in an international market. The Domestic stage refers to allocating or recruiting staff from within the country of the company. The Ethnocentric stage is similar to domestic stage in terms of staff recruitment but the country in which the company recruits staff is not its own country. The Polycentric stage refers to employ staff from the country in which you are doing business. The Geocentric stage refers to employ staff throughout the globe in order to achieve the objectives of the firm by using skillful people of the world. These stages have emerged due too certain aspect prevailing in the world, which tends multinational companies to adopt these stages. McDonalds being a multinational fast food chain has adopted different stages in different countries. In Pakistan McDonalds has adopted Polycentric view of staffing. This is due to many reasons like language barrier, religious aspect prevailing in the country, lack of security reasons for foreigners and high ratio of unemployment of the locals in the country. As compared to McDonalds in America where there are both domestic and geocentric views of employment. This is due to the difference in their countries environment, thinking and political condition. (2.3) Market Research Process of McDonalds in International Marketing: McDonalds being world famous in its fast food chain and delivering its best in making delicious and unique burgers has to go through certain market research process for the international market. This marketing research process has to be worked out by following a range of steps in order to accomplish tasks which curtail the research. These tasks are related to problem identification, setting objectives, data collection and analyses and finally preparing the report of the research. Before entering the Pakistani market McDonalds had to do a thorough market research in which they firstly highlighted the areas of problem they will have to work on, secondly they made objectives to solve these problems, for this purpose they started collecting data through both primary and secondary sources which would provide helpful information to them regarding their problems and after collection of the data through public serves, various economist, external sources and advertisement, they analyzed these collected data and got solutions through their problems. Due to the through market research by McDonalds it is now successfully flourishing its business in Pakistan. (2.4) Market Choice and Market Entry Strategy Options Used By McDonalds: When deciding to start a fast food chain of the west like McDonalds in a country like Pakistan who follows and practices Islamic Laws and Sharia McDonalds will have to face many Barriers of its entry, to overcome these barriers McDonalds will have to make certain strategies. The first and foremost barrier is socio cultural barrier which states to the religious aspect in the country that allows to deal only in Halal commodities, to overcome this McDonalds will have to provide its franchise Halal meat and ingredients. The second barrier is the source of capital for running its business, to see through this problem McDonalds has started subscribing its Franchising to the locals of Pakistan and does not have to invest on its own and enjoys loyalty from them. The third barrier is the terms and tariffs prevailing in Pakistan, to face this barrier McDonalds will have to organize its business in the prospective terms and tariffs of the country. (2.5) Impact Of Cost Leadership, Differentiation and Focus On Branding, Brand Strength and Recognition in Country Specific Markets of McDonalds: Cost leadership is a process through which a company focuses on producing commodities or product at lowest cost. This process is dependent upon the companies prospective of its performance, size, scale and experience. A fast growing worldwide food chain like McDonalds also focuses on branding, brand strength and recognition of it brands in country specific markets. Branding refers to making an indication of a specific company in terms of logo, picture, mark or delivering a certain look of a commodity. McDonalds also make certain analysis on its brand strength in terms of its competitors by making Qualitative and Quantitative analysis on its customers. The outcome from these researches helps McDonalds in making any changes to its products for gaining strength of its brand and also making its recognition in the country specific market. The restaurant industry is known for yielding low margins that can make it difficult to compete with a cost leadership marketing strategy. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has been extremely successful with this strategy by offering basic fast-food meals at low prices. They are able to keep prices low through a division of labor that allows it to hire and train inexperienced employees rather than trained cooks. It also relies on few managers who typically earn higher wages. These staff savings allow the company to offer its foods for bargain prices. (3.1) International Product Strategies ofMcDonalds: In international product strategies McDonald USA uses different strategies as compared to its international market in McDonalds Pakistan. In USA the company produces its product in a standard manner, where commodities are prepared as per the standard of the people in the country. The America food cuisine mostly consists of burgers with western mild spices and a preference of tender burger patties not considered overcooking the meat and removing its flavors. In McDonalds Pakistan the taste preference of the people is different as compared to the American society. In Pakistan people follow the Indian cuisine of curries, tempting spices, rich flavored food, and nicely cooked meat. In this case McDonalds USA cannot adopt the same standards of taste in McDonalds Pakistan as it would not satisfy the customers in the country, who are not familiar with the taste of western community. In this case McDonalds Pakistan will be on a different verge of innovation rather than extending on the same methods of production of USA. (3.2) Pricing Strategies For Market Penetration Used By McDonalds: McDonalds USA has adopted a reasonable pricing strategy for its market, which makes McDonalds USA affordable for the people with different level of income. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is using Value-Pricing Strategy whereby its offer just the right combination of quality and good service at a fair price to their consumers. This shows McDonalds USA competitive pricing strategy, which is keeping it above its competitors and helping it to become peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s choice. In McDonalds Pakistan the same Value Pricing strategy is being adopted by Lakson group, but the company is not prospering in the same capacity as McDonalds USA as the level of income of population in Pakistan is low and a majority of people cannot afford a quality meal. This has limited the market penetration of McDonalds in Pakistan as people expect low prices on food products, which the company cannot beer. (3.3) Objectives of International Communication Campaign: McDonalds being recognized by the world as a great food retailer has to maintain an international communication campaign, which tends to keep in touch with customer feedback as well country or region feedback, but this international communication campaign has laid certain issues when concerned with McDonalds Pakistan and other such country were polices are similar to Pakistan. In Pakistan the national language is Urdu, the country is an Islamic state, target audience is completely different from USA or other countries and it has a different culture and feedback of the people for the communication campaign. Hence McDonalds follows different communication campaign in different country and is making progress towards it development. McDonalds however has raised a slogan which say Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m lovinÃ¢â¬â¢ itÃ¢â¬ is set on international standard and is being followed in all the countries were McDonalds is operating. (3.4) Elements of Marketing Mix In Relation to International Markets: McDonalds being spread around the globe on the basis of franchising has less to do with international delivery as its main purpose is to monitor the standard it has set for its product. McDonalds however uses different packaging, storage and delivery procedures in USA and Pakistan. In Pakistan the storage and packaging standard are being checked and prepared by Lakson Group, this group is also responsible for sending the supplies to the franchises prevailing in the country and making shore that these supplies come from a halal source. The delivery of the products to the customers are being monitored by a call center who checks the availability of the products and sends the order to most nearest franchise of the corresponding customer, that can deliver the product in a reasonable amount of time. In USA the same procedure is being followed however the regulatory body is the McDonalds organization itself. (3.5) Importance of E-Services to Other Countries: In this new era of innovation of and improvement e services has played a major role by making sharing of information, transaction and techniques easy, simple and quick. McDonalds USA being a spread across the globe has made its mark by these services by aware people of their products and deals. These e service has helped McDonalds USA in many ways, firstly by transmitting its idea to the public, secondly by gaining feedbacks from its customer through their website, thirdly by collecting data from its operating franchises and fourthly by collecting information from different sources for new potential markets and their requirement. McDonalds Pakistan has also made benefits of these e services and provided various useful information on its website and certain suggestion and feedback form for inquire of their customer. This e services also make customer aware of their future events and new products and deals to be offered.